• Hemorrhoids: symptoms, photos, treatment, signs of hemorrhoids

    For today, hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the modern world.

    According to statistics, at least once in a lifetime 8 out of 10 people had an illness. With hemorrhoids, varicose veins and inflammation of the hemorrhoidal veins occur in the rectum.

    The disease is fraught not only with the severe discomfort that it causes, but also with numerous complications. The presence of this problem requires a full-time consultation with a specialist with the subsequent selection of treatment tactics.

    Classification of

    Depending on the location of the hemorrhoids, the symptoms and treatment of the disease will be significantly different. Hemorrhoids can be:

    1. 1) Internal.
    2. 2) Outdoor.
    3. 3) Combined.
    Internal hemorrhoids develop in the rectum lumen. Usually it is difficult to see with the naked eye and the patient only on sensations can guess about the presence of pathology. With internal hemorrhoids, as a result of increased blood flow, various vascular plexuses located in the rectum begin to expand, and, in the final result, protrude from under the mucous membrane. This form develops gradually and is accompanied by a lack of a pronounced clinical picture.

    External hemorrhoids are often called anal. It differs from the internal form in that the hemorrhoidal nodes protrude outward near the anus and are clearly visible even to the unaided eye. For such a form, there is an abundance of various unpleasant symptoms, which give the patient a lot of inconvenience.

    Combined hemorrhoids - a combination of internal and external shape. This combination is considered the most difficult, and, as a rule, develops due to neglect of the doctor's advice and timely therapy.

    Stages of hemorrhoids

    In the usual course of the disease, hemorrhoids undergo four stages of development - from the very first symptoms to the severe condition of the last stage of the disease.

    The appearance of the earliest symptoms marks the first stage of hemorrhoids. At this stage, the disease is just beginning to form. The first knots of a small size, which only began to appear, people often do not notice. And the present symptoms and inconveniences are still so insignificant that they are rarely noticed.

    The second stage develops, if at its first manifestations appropriate measures for treatment and elimination of the cause provoking the disease have not been taken. At this stage, painful sensations are amplified, and also the nodes fall out. As a rule, at this stage, drugs for local treatment are shown to be highly effective.

    The third stage differs from the second in that it is no longer possible to independently fix the hemorrhoids within. They fall out not only when defecating, but even with the slightest physical effort.

    The fourth stage is fraught with the most serious symptoms and complications. Nodes are almost always outside, while they are very sore and bleed. In most cases at this stage, surgical intervention is recommended.

    Photo: hemorrhoids.

    Causes and risk factors for the development of hemorrhoids

    The main reason for the formation of hemorrhoids is vascular pathology and an increased tendency to thrombosis. The disease is formed due to the fact that due to this dysfunction the arterial blood flow in the rectum area is significantly increased, but the outflow of blood through the cavernous veins, on the contrary, decreases.

    As a result, damaged veins become filled with blood and stretch. Thus, a node is formed, which in time only increases in size and inflames.

    Many factors contribute to the formation of hemorrhoids. Most often - this is a problem with the gastrointestinal tract. One of the most common causes is constipation. With this problem, the feces stay too long in the cavity of the rectum, presses on its walls and causes irritation. In addition, a person who often has constipation, usually stiffens during defecation, which also contributes to deprived pressure on the veins.

    Similar influence is exerted by benign and malignant neoplasms, as well as any inflammatory processes in the pelvic area.

    Stagnant processes in the veins of the rectum contribute to a sedentary lifestyle. It is for this reason that hemorrhoids have become so common in our time, when hypodynamia for many is the norm of life. In addition, the disease is also subject to people who are engaged in heavy physical labor, implying the lifting of heavy weights.

    The cause of hemorrhoids in women often becomes pregnancy or childbirth. Almost every second person of the weaker sex after the birth of a child is diagnosed with this or that degree of the disease( see how to treat hemorrhoids after childbirth).

    Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids

    When hemorrhoids are very important not to miss symptoms at the initial stage, when the disease can still be cured with minimal interference.

    The first symptoms of hemorrhoids, which are intended to alert a person, are usually associated with unnatural sensations in the rectal area. In the photo on the right you can see the external hemorrhoids.

    A person feels an unusual weight that can appear after defecation, and in some cases precede it. This sensation does not pass even after the intestines have emptied.

    Also in the initial stage of hemorrhoids unpleasant symptoms in the anus can occur. In this case it is an itch, a burning sensation, secretions of caustic mucus, reddening of the mucosa and skin around the anus.

    Over time, discomfort in the anus is greatly amplified. There is a strong and sharp pain, which usually increases with bowel movement, physical effort. As a result of pain, a person begins to restrain the urge to defecate. As a result, many people develop constipation. With hemorrhoids, they usually take a chronic form.

    One of the most unpleasant symptoms of hemorrhoids is the appearance of nodes. With an external form they are located near the anus, and with the internal - in the rectum. When the disease progresses, the nodes fall out, while causing the patient a great discomfort. With a strong inflammation of the nodes to the symptoms can add high body temperature, as well as the presence of blood in the stool.

    See also: photo of hemorrhoids at the initial stage.

    How is hemorrhoids diagnosed?

    Diagnosis of hemorrhoids includes several methods of investigation.

    Initially, with suspicious symptoms, the proctologist performs a finger examination of the lower rectum. This method is mandatory for any proctologic diseases and gives the doctor the opportunity to judge the presence or absence of pathology.

    More accurate results can be obtained by conducting an anoscopy. This study is carried out using a special rectal mirror, immediately after palpation.

    In most cases, if suspected of hemorrhoids, they also perform sigmoidoscopy. This method provides a detailed examination by the sigmoid canal rectumoscope and the rectum.

    To confirm the final diagnosis, patients are recommended to undergo colonoscopy, as well as to do irrigoscopy. These procedures allow full examination of the large intestine and allow detection of pathologies such as polyps or tumors.

    In the diagnosis, it is also necessary to do laboratory tests. In particular, koprogram - analysis of stools, which will help assess the intestinal microflora, give information about the presence of enzymes, the presence of mucus or other pathological impurities. In addition, the analysis of feces for latent blood and a general blood test is mandatory.

    Treatment of hemorrhoids

    Treatment of hemorrhoids depends, first of all, on what stage the disease is at. So, in the presence of minimal symptoms, an excellent result is provided by the use of topical preparations - ointments, creams, rectal suppositories. Such drugs from hemorrhoids contain, as a rule, a combination of several substances that have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and resolving action.

    Also with hemorrhoids of all stages, treatment with systemic drugs is indicated: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, venotonic drugs, drugs containing bioflavonoids. In addition to conservative treatment, various non-surgical methods are actively used for the treatment of the disease, a direction for the removal of hemorrhoids:

    • sclerotherapy;
    • infrared coagulation;
    • cryodestruction;
    • ligation by latex rings;
    • laser coagulation;
    • using a radio-frequency scalpel.
    In the late stages of hemorrhoids, you often have to resort to surgery. Indications for surgery are large drop-out nodes that are constantly bleeding, as well as a lack of response to conservative treatment.

    The operation to remove hemorrhoids is called hemorrhoidectomy. It involves the excision of the nodes with a scalpel. As a rule, during such an operation, laser and electrocoagulation are additionally applied.

    In addition to hemorrodectomy, the so-called Longo surgery, named after the Italian surgeon who invented and first applied this technique, is also considered a popular surgical method for treating hemorrhoids.

    In Longo's operation, special seams are used, which are applied at the point where the nodes fall out, slightly above their base. Thus, damage to the rectal mucosa occurs at a minimum, and the patient is restored more quickly.

    Treatment of hemorrhoids with folk remedies

    In addition to conservative therapies for hemorrhoids, folk medicine is very popular. Such methods significantly alleviate the symptoms of the disease and, in comparison with medicines, are practically harmless.

    Sitting baths are very popular for treating hemorrhoids in the home. For their preparation use the collection of herbs, which have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect. Such fees include chamomile, St. John's wort, linden briar, oak bark. Baths are usually used in courses. The length of this course is from two weeks to a month.

    Ointments prepared at home( see ointments from hemorrhoids) also show high efficiency. Similar preparations are prepared, as a rule, on the basis of melted butter, to which propolis, sea buckthorn oil, honey is added.

    Finished ointment treated affected areas, or applied to a gauze swab and injected into the anal opening. Home ointment promotes wound healing, relieves pain, facilitates defecation.

    Read also how to treat hemorrhoids in men.

    Complications of

    Hemorrhoids, especially in the absence of adequate treatment, can provoke serious complications. In most cases, such a complication may become thrombosis of the hemorrhoids, which usually occurs as a result of a strong spasm of the sphincter. This type of thrombosis is characterized by such symptoms as bleeding, weakness, increased heart rate, dizziness.

    The inflamed inflammation of the nodes is also fraught with the development of paraproctitis. The disease is a purulent inflammation of the rectum, in which the intestinal tissues are gradually destroyed. This complication of hemorrhoids requires immediate contact with a doctor and the appointment of anti-inflammatory therapy and antibiotics. Otherwise, blood can be contaminated and lethal.

    A frequent complication of the disease is iron deficiency anemia. It develops as a result of the inflamed nodes often bleed and such blood loss as a result strongly influences the level of hemoglobin, lowering its level sometimes to critical values.

    Prevention of hemorrhoids

    Preventive measures in hemorrhoids help not only to avoid relapses of the disease, but also help to alleviate the symptoms of an already diagnosed illness. To prevent the formation of hemorrhoids, you should, first and foremost, adjust your diet. The diet should be varied with fruits, vegetables, bran, drink plenty of clean water.

    It is necessary to avoid fatty and high-calorie foods, as well as spicy dishes that irritate the intestinal walls excessively. In addition, doctors recommend the establishment of a defecation process, avoiding both constipation and diarrhea. At the same time, it's worth keeping an eye on your weight, since people with obesity are more prone to any type of thrombosis.

    An important part of the prevention of hemorrhoids is motor activity. Simple physical exercises help to significantly improve the blood flow in the pelvic area. Such a recommendation is especially important for those who lead a sedentary way of life.

    Often the appearance of a disease, especially external, can trigger non-observance of personal hygiene of the perineal region. Doctors advise using a soft toilet paper, if possible after each emptying of the intestine rinse the anus with cool water.

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