A series of useful properties
Jun 01, 2018
Family Composite( Astro) - Asteraceae
The generic name comes from two Latin words bis - twice, two- and dens - the tooth, because the fruit has two denticles. Specific definition - from tri - three- and partita - divided is given in the form of leaves.
Botanical description. Annual herbaceous plant with a short, strongly branched root.
Stems erect, upper opposite branching, height 15-60 cm. Leaves opposite, short-petiolate, trifid, and in plants grown on soil with a rich content of humus, they are called five-parted. But although this term is found in domestic botanical literature and in normative and technical documentation, in our opinion, it is incorrect. Leaves have very deep incisions and should be called dissected. Segments lanceolate with serrate margin.
Flowers dirty yellow, all tubular, collected in single baskets at the top of the stem and opposite axillary shoots, the wrapper of the basket is two-rowed. External leaves lanceolate, entire, green, horizontally deflected, internal - shorter than flowers, brownish-yellow or reddish, pleated, pressed against the basket. The calyx, as in all the Compositae, is absent, instead of it there are 2( rarely 3-4) serrated points, which after flowering are lengthened and remain with seed-bearing fruits. The points along the edge are fine-bristly. The teeth are pointed obliquely downward, and therefore the fruit easily clings to animal wool, human clothing and is often carried over long distances.
Blossoms from the end of June to September. Fruits ripen in late September - October.
Biological features. The tripartite sequence is a moisture-loving plant, therefore industrial plantations are placed in places with high humidity.
The sequence is a typical culture of temperate climate. It grows best on soils, the upper layer of which retains moisture well and does not form a crust( light sandy loamy and loamy soils).Freshly harvested seeds have high germination capacity( 80-90%), they retain 5-7 years. After 6 years of storage, their germination capacity is reduced and is 60-65%.In the field, the seeds begin to rise at a temperature of 3-4 ° C, the optimum germination temperature is 15-20 "C, they appear during 15-21 days.
Growth sites: It grows on humid lowlands, along river banks, reservoirs, streams, marshes, in ditches and as a weed - in vegetable gardens and fields, often forms thickets
Geographic spread There is a growing number of raw banks of rivers, along melioration canals, ponds and lakes, in swamps, in ditches where often forms thickets.meadows and as a weed in the kitchen gardens and fieldsAlthough the reserves of raw materials in our country are enormous and many times exceed the demand, they are cultivated on a state farm of medicinal plants, which makes it possible to mechanize the billets, almost all over the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, southern Central Asia, southern West Siberia, Baikal and Transbaikalia, inhabited places in the south of Primorsky Krai The main areas of harvesting of the wild-growing sequence are in Belarus, Ukraine, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories and in some regions of Russia.
Collection and drying. Collect tops of stems and lateral branches with a length of no more than 15 cm and all leaves during the budding period in the first half of June. Raw materials collected during the flowering period, after drying, become unsuitable, as when drying under natural conditions, flowering continues( a feature of all the Compositae), and the baskets become prickly. Sometimes stems are cut, and after drying short shoots and leaves are separated, but drying in this case must be done using artificial heat. On the plantations, the collection of raw materials is mechanized. The plant is mowed, dried at a temperature of 40-45 °, the tops and leaves are separated, and the blackened parts and stems are discarded.
Collected tops and leaves of the wild-growing sequence are dried in the shade, laying a thin layer on tarpaulin, burlap, paper, gauze hammocks, and often turn over. Drying is considered complete when the stems become brittle. Some flower buds when opened are opened.
Medicinal raw materials are grass. Provocative tops and side shoots up to 15 cm long or individual leaves are collected during budding and quickly dried, spreading thinly in the sun, are often turned over. Readiness is determined by the degree of brittleness. Store in a closed container for 2 years.
Medicinal raw materials. Finished raw material - Herba Bidentis grass consists of leafy apexes of stems up to 15 cm long with buds, less often without them and separate leaves. Buds rounded, slightly flattened from the top, sometimes baskets blossoming.
Odor peculiar, taste bitterish, slightly astringent.
GOST 15946-70 allows: moisture not more than 13%;ash not more than 11%;browned and blackened tops of stems and leaves no more than 3%;Olive tops longer than 15 cm not more than 3%;organic impurity not more than 2%;mineral impurity not more than 1%.
FS 42-959-75 regulates the quality of raw materials collected by a mechanized method and worked-out after drying: the blackened parts of the plant do not exceed 8%;stems of no more than 40%;organic impurity not more than 3%.Other indicators are the same.
Organic impurities include parts of other plants, including other species of the sequence.
Medicinal raw material is grass, leafy tops, leaves collected in the budding phase and at the beginning of flowering at a height of up to 15 cm from the surface. The dried plant has a faint smell, taste astringent, slightly burning, bitter.
It is known that the raw material contains essential oil, a large amount of carotene( up to 60 mg%), ascorbic acid( 100 to 1000 mg%), tannins with a high content of polyphenyls, which are attributed to anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. In addition, the sequence contains manganese, which can be converted to aqueous solutions. Shelf life is up to 5 years.
The alternating fold - Bidens cernua L. differs in that it has integral leaves that are not segmented, and often along with tubular ones it contains yellow reed flowers with light yellow tips( there are two varieties, one of which contains lingula flowers and the other onehas not).It is proved that the flavonoid composition of this species does not differ from the tripartite sequence( MI Borisov et al.), But the State Standard does not yet allow the use of this species. Chemical composition of .The herbaceous line contains at least 10 flavonoids, including luteolin-D-glucopyranoside, buteyin, sulphuretin, D-glucopyranoside of butein, up to 6.5% of condensed tannins, red flobafen, which determines the color of water extracts, carotene, coumarins umbelliferone andscopolenin, 60-70 mg per 100 g of vitamin C, traces of essential oil, mucus, amines, bitterness, -u-lactones, etc.
Agrotechnics of growing .Site selection. Under the turn as a moisture-loving plant should be removed moist, well drained areas.
Soil treatment is carried out in the same way as for other tilled crops.
Application of fertilizers. In the main plowing, 40 tons per hectare of humus or compost are applied together with mineral fertilizers at the rate of 30 kg / ha of active substance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. During the sowing period, granular superphosphate( 8-10 kg / ha) is introduced.
Reproduction. Alternate propagate with seeds that are sown in the soil in spring or late autumn. When the subsea is sowing with dry seeds, the yield is 3 times higher than at spring. Almost the same yield gives also spring sowing with seeds stratified within two months. The sowing is carried out by the SKON-4,2 seed drill equipped with flanges, disc openers and rollers, with a row spacing of 60 cm. The seeding rate is 6-12 kg / ha, the depth of embedment is 2-3 cm.
. The plantation care consists of 4-5 looseninginter-rowing and weeding of weeds in beds. In years with high humidity plants are fed with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers at the rate of 30 kg / ha of the active substance. The leaves and grassy upper parts of the stem are cleaned at the budding stage - at the beginning of flowering, manually 2 times during the summer.
Drying can be carried out in fire driers, under canopies, and in sunny weather - outdoors, avoiding direct sunlight.
Packing. Raw materials are packed in bags of 25 kg or in bales of 50 kg.
Storage. Store on shelves in a dry, ventilated area.
Quality requirements. Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI( FS-45, pp. 305-308).
Seed growing. Agrotechnics of seed areas almost does not differ from the conventional methods of cultivation, except for the use of nitrogen fertilizers in half the doses in comparison with the recommended ones. Seeds are harvested as if mowing the aboveground mass separately, drying it on currents and threshing with harvesters, and when harvesting directly by harvesters during the ripening of the seeds. Seeds are processed on grain cleaning machines such as "Petkus".The yield of seeds is 1.5-2 centners per hectare.
The seed plot area, taking into account the seed insurance fund, should be 6-8% of the commodity plantations.
Action and application of .The pharmacological properties of the sequence are not well understood.
Decoction of 15-30 g. Grass for 1 liter of water is used for baths as a preventative against scrofululosis( scrofula).Children bathe in a bath without soap, once a week, diluting the broth with boiled water. For the treatment of scrofulosis, except for baths, which are done 3 times a week, children are given a decoction of 10 g of herb per 200 ml of water for 1/2 teaspoons 3 times a day daily.
When treating psoriasis, adults are given a decoction of 25-20 grams of herbs per 200 ml of water 2-3 tablespoons 3 times a day and externally a 2.5-3% ointment from an extract of 1: 1 on a lanolin-vaseline basis,which is rubbed into the skin once a day.
Decoction is also prescribed as a diaphoretic for colds and as a diuretic for diseases of the urogenital organs.
In medical cosmetics decoction of the skin to give it softness, the destruction of acne and acne. The industry produces rectangular grass briquettes of a string weighing 75 g. Divided by grooves into 10 equal lobules, and round briquettes weighing 7.5 g.
Indications: used as a diaphoretic for colds, diuretic for diseases of the genitourinary organs( cystitis, pyelonephritis), in the nurserypractice for baths with diathesis.
Grass herb infusion - 20 The herbs are ground to particles of 5 mm, placed in a vessel( enameled or stainless steel), poured into 200 ml of room temperature water, closed, heated in a boiling water bath with frequent stirring for 15 minutes,cool, filter, add water to 200 ml. Take 1 tbsp.l.2-3 times a day. In folk medicine, "averin tea" is used, consisting of equal parts of a string and a tri-colored violet( ivan-da-marya) and 0.5 part of the stems of nightshade sweet and bitter. Broth turns are made from 3 tbsp.l.herbs for 2 cups of water, boil for 10 minutes;use for lotions.
The aerial part of the tripartite sequence collected during the budding period has a pronounced anti-inflammatory, metabolic and diuretic property.
Used internally as a diuretic as a diuretic and diaphoretic, as bitterness to improve appetite and digestion, with scrofula and exudative diathesis. Grass is used in children's practice for the preparation of medicinal baths, with various diatheses, accompanied by ur-ticharnoy rash, scrofulous, milk string and head seborrhea.
In folk medicine, the thrice-thrash sequence is popular primarily due to its anti-acid properties. It is used inside as a water infusion, tea to treat scrofula, increase appetite, improve digestion.
Water infusion or decoction of herbs used for exudative diathesis, rickets, gout, arthritis, liver and spleen diseases, drink with fright, inflammation of the bladder, headache;when eczema drink and make lotions on the affected areas, the same for skin manifestations of exudative diathesis, rheumatic joints( arthritis).
Grated fresh grass or roots are applied to wounds from a snake bite, applied to wounds and ulcers, which helps to clear them from pus, dry out and faster healing, tissue regeneration. Decoctions of grass are used for scrofula for baths, washings and wipes, the best effect is given by baths with tea.
Broth: 4 tbsp.spoons of herbs for 1 liter of boiling water, insist the night. Take half a cup 3-4 times a day( boil for 10 minutes).
Infusion: 6 g per 200 ml;1 tbsp.spoon 4 times a day. Tea: the grass is brewed like tea and drunk without dosing. For external use: 50 or 100 g per bucket of water.
Tray of valerian and string
Required.4 cups of beer, 50 g of chopped valerian root, 50 g of herb grass.
Method of preparation. Fill with a hot beer of the plant, insist 4 hours, strain. Keep the infusion in a sealed container. The temperature of the bath is 30-40 degrees.
How to use. Hold in the hands for 15-20 minutes. This bath is recommended for numbness of fingers and joint pain.
Herb infusion has a diuretic, diaphoretic, choleretic and bactericidal action. It improves digestion, normalizes the metabolism.
Oil extract of grass has anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effect.
It has been experimentally established that tincture of the string with internal administration has a sedative effect, lowers arterial pressure, increases the heart rate, increases the contraction of smooth muscle organs.
As a means of improving metabolism, the herb infusion is used for different diatheses, which are accompanied by rashes, with scrofula, neurodermatitis, seborrheic head skin damage, arthritis, gout;- as a diaphoretic - for colds;as a diuretic - with diseases of the genito-urinary organs;as a vitamin remedy - for lung diseases, ulcers on the skin and ulcerative colitis. For the prevention of scrofula, children are bathed without soap in a bath of broth turn once a week.
For the treatment of scrofulosis, except for baths, children are prescribed infusion( 10 g of herb per 200 ml of water) 0.5 teaspoonful 3 times a day. In psoriasis, adults are recommended a decoction( 25-30 grams of herbs per 200 ml of water) 2-3 tablespoons 3 times a day and 2.5-3% ointment from the extract of the string( prepared with 70% alcohol in the ratioraw material - solvent 1: 1).Ointment is prepared on the basis of Vaseline and Lanolin in a ratio of 1: 1, which is rubbed into the skin 1 time per day.
The broth is washed with wounds. Wipe the skin with acne and acne. In gynecology, decoction of herbs is used for trays and microclysters in inflammatory diseases of female genital organs. Shredded leaves of the turn are applied to wounds and ulcers. Contraindications to the use of drugs are not revealed.
Infusion of hops and turns
for 1 tbsp.a spoonful of cones of hops, grass of a turn, 250 ml of water.
Method of preparation.
1 teaspoon of the mixture pour boiling water, insist 2 h, drain.
Method of use.
Take hot as 3 times daily before meals.