Complications possible during pregnancy
Mar 13, 2018
We have already said that pregnancy is a natural state of a woman. With the onset of pregnancy, a number of physiological changes occur in the woman's body, which are not the same for
at different times. These changes consist in increasing the function of the main organs and systems, and also impose a special imprint on the metabolism and the functioning of the endocrine glands.
Consequently, changes in the body of a pregnant woman are diverse. To a large extent, they depend on the state of the central nervous system.
The function of the cerebral cortex, the nature of the flow in it of the basic nervous processes have a huge impact on the entire body of the pregnant woman.
With insufficient work of some organs and with the arising deviations in metabolism, pregnancy can acquire a pathological character. Some women do not pay attention to those ailments that they sometimes experience during pregnancy, and do not resort to the help and advice of a doctor. But it is during this period that imperceptible at first, but serious complications may develop.
Sometimes women experience a complication of pregnancy, called toxicosis. It arises from functional changes in the higher parts of the central nervous system, which in turn leads to disruption of water-salt and protein metabolism. There are two main forms of the disease: toxicosis of the first half of pregnancy( up to 20 weeks) and toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy( after 20 weeks).
In case of toxicosis of the first half of pregnancy, a woman develops severe nausea, salivation, aversion to food and frequent vomiting, which without proper treatment can lead to excessive exhaustion of the pregnant woman.
Recently, quite effective methods of treating this type of toxicosis have been found by medical science.
Incomparately more serious and serious complication is a toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy - late toxicosis. It is characterized by the presence of hidden or visible edema, increased blood pressure and the appearance of protein in the urine, and it is not necessary that the symptoms appear simultaneously. Most often, late toxicosis begins with the appearance of edema( dropsy of pregnant women).
In a healthy woman, during normal pregnancy, the weight gain by the end of pregnancy should not exceed
15% of her initial weight( the gain is composed of the weight of the child with the afterbirth and amniotic fluid and the weight of the water retained in the tissues of the pregnant woman).At the end of pregnancy, many women appear, especially in the evening, a small swelling of the feet and shins. Usually during the night, these swelling disappear. Excessive water retention in the body leads to the formation of both internal( hidden) and large external edema, the latter can easily be detected by the most pregnant. She notes that by the end of the day the footwear is becoming cramped, the ring on her finger can not be removed, there are edemas in the ankle area, and there are traces in the form of dimples on the skin of the lower leg when pressing. Such edema rarely pass during the night and should be regarded as pathological. This is usually the result of a metabolic disorder and a delay in the tissues of pregnant water and mineral salts.
Internal swelling can be detected only when the pregnant woman is systematically weighed. It is believed that in the second half of pregnancy the weight gain for the week should not exceed 350 grams on average. Excessive accumulation of fluid in tissues threatens the development of toxicosis, called nephropathy. At the same time, in addition to edema, blood pressure usually rises and the protein in the urine often appears. The latter circumstance indicates a violation of kidney function. In these cases, the immediate hospitalization of a pregnant woman in the department of pregnancy pathology is shown, otherwise such formidable symptoms of toxicosis as headache, pain in the epigastric region, visual disturbances and seizures with loss of consciousness - eclampsia can quickly develop. It was found that the development of toxicosis is very unfavorable for the course of pregnancy and the outcome of childbirth.
In toxicoses in the body of pregnant women, serious pathological changes occur. In this case, the most severe lesions are subjected to such vital organs as the liver, kidneys, brain and cardiovascular system. After a long, sometimes latent period, the disease can take a very fast course and end with the most severe and dangerous form of late toxicosis - eclampsia.
In order to prevent the development of toxicosis, a woman in the second half of pregnancy should limit the intake of liquid to 1-1.5 liters, table salt to 5 grams in the
day, monitor the appearance of edema and, of course, visit the consultation systematically. Only with systematic observation in a women's consultation can there be identified such important symptoms of toxicosis that the pregnant woman herself may not notice.
The sooner a pregnant woman consults for signs of illness or complications, the more successful the treatment will be.
Late toxicosis often leads to the onset of premature birth. The spontaneous premature termination of pregnancy can be caused by other reasons.
So, they sometimes arise in women with diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, liver, with the violation of a number of endocrine glands, as well as due to acute infectious diseases. Among the latter, influenza and angina play an important role. Predisposing moment in the onset of premature birth may be a deficiency in the body of a pregnant vitamin, in particular vitamin E. Premature interruption of pregnancy can lead to diseases of the sexual organs of women.
Sometimes premature delivery can be caused by improper attachment of the child's place to the uterus. Usually the child's place is located on one of the walls of the uterus
in the area of its bottom. But there are cases when it is attached low, at the innermost pharynx of the uterus and can even cover for itself a pharynx.
This arrangement of the child's place is dangerous,
Suffice for minor fights, so that the child's place attached at the bottom begins to flake from the uterine wall and bleeding occurs.
Appearance during pregnancy even minor bleeding from the genitals, as well as cramping pains in the lower abdomen, in the lower back( which is often a sign of the onset of spontaneous miscarriage or premature birth) is an alarm signal. A woman in such cases should go to bed and immediately call a doctor for a woman's consultation.
The possibility of maintaining pregnancy in various diseases of internal organs has an exceptionally large
value. Every woman seeks to know the joy and happiness of motherhood. In cases where a woman is not very healthy, it is especially important that she is during pregnancy under the systematic supervision of a therapist and midwife of a women's consultation. Having discovered this or that concomitant disease or having established a deviation from the normal course of pregnancy, the doctors will take the necessary measures in time to avoid formidable complications, and also to preserve the health of the mother and child.
The death of a newborn can be caused by the incompatibility of blood by the Rh factor in the mother and fetus. With this incompatibility, hemolytic disease of newborns develops. It turned out that about 85% of people are the holders of the Rh factor, that is, respositive. The remaining 15% belong to the rhesosotritsateliyu group.
If you take into account that of the 15% of people who are rhesotsotritsatelnye, half are men, and some women are not in childbearing age, it becomes clear why cases of Rh-incompatibility in obstetric practice are relatively rare.
Despite this, serious attention is paid to the Rh factor in medicine, since, according to the majority of Soviet and foreign authors, Rh-incompatibility is a relatively frequent cause of spontaneous miscarriages, premature births and stillbirths.
Rh-incompatibility can occur when a rhesusotritsatelnaya woman becomes pregnant with a respositive fetus from a resuspicious husband. In this case, a newborn can develop a blood disease.
Therefore, the Rh factor plays an essential role in the woman's genital function. In this regard, even before birth, you need to know not only the blood group of a pregnant woman, but also Rh-belonging.
In recent years, in many obstetric clinics and maternity hospitals, a compulsory blood test for the Rh factor in all pregnant women is being carried out. With the establishment of Rh-negative blood in a pregnant woman, an indispensable condition is also a study of blood from her husband. If the mother and father have blood that is found to be resusable, the possibility of developing a hemomitic disease in the newborn is excluded. If there is a Rh rhesus conflict between the blood of the expectant mother and her husband, the pregnant woman should be under strict supervision of the female consultation;if necessary, it is placed in advance in a hospital, where a thorough clinical examination and appropriate treatment will be carried out. These measures are taken in connection with the fact that with the Rh-incompatibility of blood of the mother and fetus, one can always expect so-called jaundice of newborns. However, at the first birth it occurs rarely.
Newborns suffering from hemolytic jaundice produce a transfusion of the rhesusotritsatelnoy blood. In addition, it is necessary to stop feeding the baby with mother's milk. Milk should be tested for Rh-antibodies and it can be given to a child only in the absence of them. The effectiveness of the measures taken is significantly increased when a pregnant woman is promptly examined for Rh-belonging.
There is no need to list all the complications and diseases that sometimes arise during pregnancy and which in many cases can be prevented. Experience shows that most often they are observed in those women who take little care of their health, neglect pregnancy rules of personal hygiene, do not follow the advice received in the women's consultation. And this primarily adversely affects the condition and development of the fetus.
There are not rare cases when the sad outcome of pregnancy and childbirth depends not only on the woman herself, but, to a certain extent, on her relatives, the direct duty of which to take care of the pregnant woman in every possible way and create the best living conditions for her.