Tonsillitis is the pathological inflammation of the palatine tonsils. The disease develops due to infection in the throat of a viral or bacterial nature.
It is most often diagnosed in the cold season, when the human immune system is significantly weakened.
Distinguish between chronic and acute tonsillitis. The latter is often called angina.
From chronic tonsillitis angina( see symptoms of angina) is characterized by a more acute and complex course. In addition, it is fraught with many severe complications, which are more rare in chronic tonsillitis.
Tonsils are one of the most important components of the human immune system. Their purpose is not to let in the human body infection and viruses. But sometimes tonsils themselves become victims of the pathological activity of microorganisms. In this case, most often we are talking about hemolytic streptococcus, less often about viruses, other types of streptococcus, chlamydia, mycoplasma.
As for acute tonsillitis, it can arise isolated, and can develop from a chronic form of the disease, if a person does not receive appropriate treatment.
Infection with tonsillitis occurs usually through the air-drip way, less often - through the food. This is facilitated by weakened immunity, the presence of any viral disease or cold.
In some cases, self-infection is possible. A similar situation can occur if the source of infection is present in the body, for example, caries, periodontal disease, etmoiditis, or sinusitis.
Symptoms of tonsillitis in adults
A common symptom, for both chronic and acute tonsillitis, is sore throat.
Depending on the individual characteristics of a specific clinical case, it can be moderate or very severe. In this case, there is also discomfort when swallowing saliva, eating food.
In chronic tonsillitis also there are such general clinical symptoms as elevated body temperature( up to 38 degrees), weakness, lack of appetite. On tonsils( see inflammation of the glands) during their examination, the doctor notes the presence of a white coating, the tonsils themselves are enlarged and reddened.
Thyroid symptoms may also be associated with pharyngitis, which is characterized by a tickling in the throat, a hoarse voice. A distinctive feature of chronic tonsillitis is the alternation of the stages of remission and exacerbation, so sometimes the symptoms with this form of tonsillitis are rather blurred.
Acute tonsillitis is much more severe. It has a fairly high body temperature - up to 40-41 degrees, as well as an increase in lymph nodes. The pain in the throat is very strong, the swallowing process is difficult.
Depending on the variety of angina( follicular, herpetic, fibrinous, lacunar, catarrhal and others) on the tonsils can form a white film or plaque, pustules, follicles. Sometimes these formations can spread an unpleasant odor from the mouth.
Treatment of tonsillitis
Today tonsillitis is treated with two main methods - conservative therapy and surgical intervention. The first method is much more common.
In chronic tonsillitis during an exacerbation, as well as with acute tonsillitis, first of all, antibiotic therapy is carried out. It consists in the use of drugs of local and systemic action. The purpose of a specific type of antibiotic is based on the analysis of a smear from the tonsils and a ready antibioticogram. In chronic tonsillitis usually take an antibiotic in a tablet form, and with angina, an intramuscular injection is usually prescribed.
Local treatment for tonsillitis involves a variety of procedures. First, the doctor can prescribe the removal of purulent formations on tonsils, after which the lesions are washed with antiseptic solutions: chlorhexidine, miramistin, silver solution.
It is also possible for local administration of antibiotics to the tonsils, the use of antiseptic tablets and lozenges. A good effect is provided by the use of different types of physiotherapy. In the chronic course of the disease, the course of immunomodulators and vitamins is mandatory.
Surgery for tonsillitis is an operation during which tonsils are removed, which can be indicated if there are zugliteal or peri-min-dorsal abscesses. This situation is an absolute indication for the operation. Also, the removal of tonsils is possible in the event that the disease constantly recurs without reacting to conservative treatment.
Read also, treatment of sore throat at home.
Complications of tonsillitis
Both chronic tonsillitis and tonsillitis can give various systemic complications.
One of the most serious diseases, which is preceded by tonsillitis, is rheumatism. According to statistics, almost half of patients with rheumatism had a form of inflammation of the tonsils before the onset of the disease. Signs of possible rheumatism can be detected only after 3-4 weeks after the person has recovered. As a rule, rheumatism begins with a strong aches in the joints, a rise in temperature.
A common complication after tonsillitis are various cardiovascular diseases. Most often it is a case of tonsillocardial syndrome, which is also called tonsilligenic dystrophy of the myocardium. This syndrome manifests itself as shortness of breath, palpable heart failure, tachycardia.
In addition to complications of a systemic nature, the disease also leads to local complications. So, after an acute form of tonsillitis, infection can spread to nearby tissues. In this case, a person feels pain, difficulty in swallowing, fever. This condition is called paratonsylitis.
Regional lymphadenitis belongs to the category of local complications. It manifests itself in the form of swelling and soreness of the regional lymph nodes, which are infected with tonsils.
Prophylaxis of tonsillitis
For the prevention of acute tonsillitis requires the observance of the correct regime of the day. Full sleep and rest, proper nutrition improve the immunity of a person and thereby prevent infection with infection. It is also useful to carry out hardening, water procedures, long walks in the fresh air.
To reduce the risk of relapse in chronic tonsillitis, it is required to strictly adhere to the procedures prescribed by the doctor, to regularly take the necessary drugs. In addition, a good preventive measure will be the removal of sources of potential infection: caries, diseases of the oral mucosa, sinusitis and other diseases of the paranasal sinuses.
Many doctors also recommend self-massage of the throat. It looks like an easy stroking of the throat in the direction from the jaw to the chest. Do it recommend before going out on the street in the cold season, or before taking cold food.
Folk remedies for tonsillitis
With chronic tonsillitis, the use of tips and recommendations of traditional medicine makes a good effect. In this case, most often it is a rinse with decoctions of herbs that have an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effect( see how to gargle with a sore throat.)
Chamomile, linden, althea root, pomegranate and peppermint leaves have similar properties.from a few herbs, pour boiling water and insist for half an hour, after which thoroughly rinse the throat several times. This rinse is done 3-4 times a day for about one week.
Good bactericidal itsBeekeeping products are used for treatment of tonsillitis. It is recommended to use natural propolis. It is especially useful to rinse the throat with a solution prepared on the basis of an alcohol extract of propolis and water. In addition, the propolis tincture can also be consumed by adding several drops to a cup of tea or any otherdrink
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