Pollinosis: symptoms and treatment, the causes of pollinosis
May 24, 2018
As a result, the quality of life and the performance of people exposed to this disease is significantly reduced.
How does hives develop?
What causes the development of pollinosis, and what is it? Pathology can develop at any age, but in most cases the primary manifestation of pollinosis is manifested in adolescence and childhood.
The basis of pathogenesis is an allergic reaction of immediate type. Among the structural components of pollen there are special "permeability factors", due to which the introduction of its grains into the epithelial mucosa occurs. First, it penetrates into the body, which becomes possible as a result of damage to the barrier properties of the upper respiratory tract.
Further local inflammation develops, as a result of which soluble allergenic associations enter the bloodstream, sensitization increases. The lower parts of the respiratory tract and other systems that do not have contact with pollen begin to be involved in the process.
Antigen-antibody complexes are attached to mast cell receptors and activate the release of histamine and serotonin. At this time, eosinophils begin to produce a special eosinophilic cationic protein.
It in turn leads to damage to the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract and release of inflammatory mediators, which cause the pathophysiological phase of the allergic reaction.
Under the influence of histamine, the vessels expand, resulting in mucosal edema, smooth muscle spasm, breathing becomes difficult, and a large amount of mucus is produced. This pathophysiology is observed about 10-20 minutes after contact with the allergen.
These reactions and predetermine the clinical symptoms of hay fever.
The causes of the pollen
The cause of the disease is the pollen of wind-pollinated plants, since it has rather small dimensions( up to 0.04 mm), is formed in large quantities and easily enters the respiratory tract. To plants-allergens should be attributed quinoa, ragweed, wormwood, birch, sunflower, poplar.
Pollinosis is a genetically determined pathology. If both parents have an allergy, then with a probability of 50% it will develop in the offspring.
In addition to the incidence may be affected by various factors:
- increased accumulation of allergens in the air at the time of the birth of the child, as well as in the first months of his life;
- viral infections;
- habitat( urban residents have a higher prevalence of pollinosis);
- weakened immunity;
- pollution of the atmosphere by pollutants.
Symptoms of Pollinosis
Pollinosis is characterized by strict seasonality and recurring symptoms that have been demonstrated for many years. The most common symptoms of pollinosis are manifested in the form of an allergic rhinitis, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes and bronchial asthma.
The inflammatory process in the upper respiratory tract is characterized by a disruption of nasal breathing, liquid discharge from the nasal passages and itching, reddening and softening of the skin of the vestibule of the nose. These symptoms are accompanied by multiple paroxysmal sneezing and lacrimation. Very often inflammatory process is thrown on the nasopharynx, larynx, auditory tubes.
With conjunctivitis, itching and hyperemia of the eyelids are observed. Disturbed photophobia, the feeling of a foreign object and a burning sensation in the eyes. To these symptoms, a bacterial infection can join.
If bronchial mucosa is drawn into the process, asthma attacks may occur, which are expressed by suffocation, chest pain, wheezing and dry cough. Usually these symptoms are reversible and pass after the plant-allergen ceases to flower.
General symptoms of pollinosis are noted: weakness, headache, nervousness, lack of appetite, decreased ability to work and concentration, sleep disturbance. Very rarely there may be signs of internal organ damage:
- vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea;
- inflammation of the bladder, nephritis, allergic vulvitis( defeat of the urogenital tract);
- shortness of breath, heart pain, tachycardia, ECG changes disappearing after the flowering season - symptoms of pollen allergic myocarditis.
Treatment of pollinosis
Therapeutic actions for hay fever depend on the season, phase of the disease and include:
- removal of the factors causing the disease( elimination of allergens);
- carrying out of allergen-specific immunotherapy( SIT);
If it is not feasible and this item is recommended:
- keep the windows closed indoors;
- use air purifiers( air conditioners);
- limit stay in the street in dry sunny weather;
- to avoid trips outside the city;
- does not come into contact with similar plant allergens.
SIT is conducted for 3-5 years using various methods. A classic option is a subcutaneous injection, but it is also possible to introduce into the nasal passages and under the tongue. In each individual case, the method is chosen by a specialist. But you need to be prepared for possible complications, expressed by local reactions: redness, skin itching, swelling.
Pharmacotherapy. Depends on the severity of the symptoms and is based on the use of antihistamines and topical( local) glucocorticosteroids. The former are used for rapid relief of symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, allergic dermatoses, and Quincke's edema and are applied both locally and internally. This is loratadine, terfenadine, astemizole.
Topical glucocorticosteroids have increased anti-inflammatory activity with minimal risk of systemic reactions. This effect is due to the inhibitory effect on mediators and cells, as well as a decrease in the synthesis of anti-inflammatory proteins, a violation of the transmissibility of blood vessels.
As a result of the application, the nose is unlocked, the itching and sneezing stops. With allergic rhinitis appointed beclomethasone, fluktikazon, triamcinolone. Seasonal conjunctivitis is effectively treated with combination drugs, in particular, Garrazone.
Preventive measures are primary and secondary. They are aimed at excluding contact with allergens and preventing the ingress of pollen into the mucous membranes. Primary prevention is necessary to prevent the development of allergies. It includes:
- balanced nutrition;
- disposal of bad habits;
- physical recovery and hardening of the body;
- restriction of antigen load;
- use of non-allergenic plants in city gardening.
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