Sinusitis: symptoms, causes and treatment of sinusitis

  • Sinusitis: symptoms, causes and treatment of sinusitis

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    Under sinusitis is understood the inflammatory process in the maxillary( maxillary) sinus. Since this is a cavity cavity, the inflammation can capture both parts immediately.

    The maxillary sinuses are located from the sides of the nasal passages and are lined with mucous membranes from the inside. Through small passages these cavities communicate with the nose.

    The functional purpose of the maxillary sinuses is to clean and warm the air that comes with nasal inspiration, as well as to form the correct pronunciation of sounds. With the emergence of genyantritis, all listed abilities are distorted.

    Inflammation can be caused by infections, for example, ingestion of staphylococci, streptococci, viruses, hemophilic rod, mycoplasma, chlamydia and fungi.

    Sinusitis acts as an independent disease, although it is usually a complication of infectious respiratory tract infections. It is also considered as one of the most common manifestations of sinusitis.

    Classification of sinusitis

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    Depending on the extent of the spread of this disease, one-sided and two-sided sinusitis are distinguished.

    When considering the clinical course, the following types are distinguished:

    • acute - occurs suddenly, manifested by stuffy nose, tenderness of the face. These symptoms worry about 10 days and rarely last longer than a month.
    • in a penis-ulcer with inflammation can last about 2 months.
    • chronic form of the disease is characterized by persistence of characteristic features for a period longer than 2 months.
    • if the genyantritis reminds of itself several times a year, it is a question of its repeated form.
    The nature of inflammation allows you to distinguish between catarrhal, allergic, odontogenic and purulent acute sinusitis.

    According to the same indicator, the chronic form of the disease is divided into a number of subspecies:

    1. 1) Polyposis is characterized by the formation on the mucosa of the maxillary sinuses of clusters of soft growths - polyps, which fill the cavity( see treatment and symptoms of polyps in the nose).
    2. 2) Hyperplastic leads to thickening of the mucous membrane, which is fraught with narrowing of the lumen of the sinus and connecting with the nose opening.
    3. 3) Atrophic type of the disease leads to complete atrophy of the mucous membrane and termination of its performance of all necessary functions.
    4. 4) A distinctive feature of the mixed species is the presence on the mucous membranes of foci of various types of chronic inflammation.

    Causes of sinusitis

    The factors and causes that can provoke the appearance of sinusitis include:

    • infection;
    • in cases of upper respiratory tract infections, sinusitis can occur as a complication;
    • inflammation of the maxillary sinuses sometimes occurs due to chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis;
    • disease can result from inflammatory processes in the roots of the teeth, which are located in the region of the maxillary sinuses;
    • a protracted runny nose of an allergic nature;
    • pressure jumps in the process of air flights or diving;
    • curved nasal septum or abnormal structure of the nose;
    • presence in the diagnosis of measles, allergies, scarlet fever;
    • narrow nasal passages;
    • constant supercooling;
    • weak immunity and vitamin deficiency.
    The last two of these reasons explain why the risk of getting sinusitis increases with the onset of the autumn-winter period. To the appearance of a chronic form of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses leads left without proper treatment of acute respiratory viral infection, as well as acute sinusitis, which is not completely eradicated.

    Therefore, it is so important at the first signs of the disease to turn to specialists, not relying on self-treatment, and to take a wellness course to the end, even if signs of improvement have occurred earlier. A feature of sinusitis is that it can begin to appear after days or even weeks after the symptoms of the illness that caused it go away.

    In children under seven, this disease does not occur, as the maxillary sinuses are in the process of formation. In the older age, sinusitis often causes adenoids( see how to treat adenoids), which disrupt the nasal breathing and are the source of infection.

    Symptoms of sinusitis

    The first symptoms of sinusitis are associated with unpleasant sensations in the area of ​​the maxillary sinuses, which are gradually intensifying. Usually in the morning the symptoms are weaker, growing with the approach of the evening.

    Pain syndrome can cover one or both of the half of the face, depending on the prevalence of the inflammatory process.

    The most characteristic first signs of genyantritis:

    • feeling of heaviness in the head;
    • the sense of smell is lost;
    • painful sensations in the region of the nose bridge, forehead and near the nose, intensifying with inclinations;
    • periodic temperature increase;
    • difficulty in nasal breathing;
    • problems with sleeping;
    • discharge from the nose of pus and blood clots.
    In the absence of proper treatment of sinusitis, memory impairment and decreased performance may occur.

    In some cases, the clinical picture is supplemented with swelling of the eyelids, swelling of the face, photophobia, lacrimation, reddening of the eyes. The patient feels weak, fast fatigue, can refuse to eat.

    In the chronic form of the disease, symptoms of maxillary sinusitis are less pronounced:

    • is a permanent, non-curing cold;
    • headache and unpleasant pain in the eye sockets;
    • occasionally appearing conjunctivitis;
    • prolonged cough.
    The danger of purulent sinusitis is that it can lead to infection of the brain and inflammation of its membrane - meningitis.


    For the detection of sinusitis in adults, clinical and paraclinical diagnostic methods are used. The final diagnosis is made on the basis of a comprehensive examination of the patient.

    Here are the main stages of diagnosis of genyantritis:

    • survey;
    • radiography of the cranial cavity;
    • computed tomography of maxillary sinuses;
    • diaphanoscopy.
    Diagnosis begins with a survey of the patient's complaints, his examination to identify the dilated vessels on the skin under the eyes and swelling, signs of inflammation on the mucous membrane and purulent discharge from the apertures of the maxillary sinuses with internal examination of the nose.

    One of the most informative methods of diagnosing the disease is the puncture of the maxillary sinuses. During this procedure, the wall of the cavity is punctured with a special needle and some of its contents are extracted.

    Patients usually tolerate a puncture well, but it is rarely prescribed because of the risk of complications such as emphysema of the cheeks or orbits, embolism of the vessels. If the procedure is carried out correctly, the possibility of their appearance is minimized.

    Treating sinusitis

    To get rid of the disease, most often resort to conservative methods of treatment of sinusitis, which include general and local medicamental therapy and physiotherapy. When the disease is started, an operation is prescribed.

    The goal of conservative therapy is to remove the swelling of the mucosa of the maxillary sinuses through providing an outflow of inflammatory contents. To do this, prescribe drops and recommend using inhalers that eliminate swelling. Often this measure is supplemented by physiotherapy procedures.

    In genyantritis, the use of antibacterial, antihistamines, antineuropathic and antipyretic drugs is indicated. Antiseptic solutions for washing have a good effect.

    Puncture can serve not only diagnostic purposes, but also therapeutic, if completed by washing with a special liquid, which includes antiseptics and antibiotics.

    Chronic maxillary sinusitis forces you to take restorative medications and resort to physiotherapy. As a therapeutic or preventive measure, oral sanation is prescribed to exclude the possibility of infection in carious teeth.

    Surgical treatment of sinusitis involves the implementation of maxillary sinusitis, the operation of cleaning the sinuses. Thanks to modern endoscopic equipment, surgery takes little time and is performed with minimal pain for the patient.

    See also: how to treat sinusitis at home

    Consequences of sinusitis

    Genyantritis is dangerous because of the peculiarities of anatomical placement and the device of the maxillary sinuses with their thin walls forming the eye socket and contacting the meninges.

    Therefore, the threat of the spread of the disease is always relevant. This is fraught with the emergence of meningitis, encephalitis, inflammation of the eyeball or its shell. Such a situation can arise when irrational treatment, non-compliance with prescriptions, self-treatment or unwillingness of medical intervention.

    In addition, sinusitis in its chronic form acts as a source of infection, leading to repeated angina, pharyngitis, dental diseases. Often one can observe a closed cavity filled with pus, the so-called abscess. Acute inflammation of the maxillary sinuses can lead to neuritis of the trigeminal nerve, which causes soreness of the facial surface.

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