Sinusitis: symptoms in adults, treatment, signs
May 24, 2018
Sinuses are air-containing cavities in the bones of the skull that are needed to warm it. Inflammation of their mucous membrane when ingested pathogenic microorganisms.
Symptoms of inflammation of each sinus( sinus) are different. Treatment of sinusitis can be both conservative and operative, the ENT doctor deals with this.
What causes sinusitis and what is it? By localization, sinusitis has the following name:
- sinusitis - inflammation of the maxillary sinus.
- frontal - the process develops in the mucous membrane of the frontal sinus.
- etomoiditis is edema, the production of inflammatory fluid or pus is observed in the cells of the latticed bone( in the cranial cavity).
- sphenoiditis - the process involves a sphenoid sinus.
- pansinusitis - inflammation of all sinuses.
- 1) Exudative, that is, during its development, an inflammatory fluid is released that can be serous or purulent.
- 2) Productive, when under the influence of microorganisms there is a proliferation of the sinus mucosa. Such a sinusitis can be polyposis and parieto-hyperplastic.
Causes of sinusitis
Sinusitis can be caused by pathogens such as:
- is a mixed( for example, bacterial-fungal) flora.
- from the nasal cavity;
- through the blood - from a remote focus of infection;
- in the case of sinusitis - from the roots of molars.
- sinus trauma;
- allergies( mainly on that substance whose particles were caught by air( pollen of plants, aerosols, sprays, fluff, feathers, particles of saliva on animal hair)
- curvature of the nasal septum;
- polyps in the paranasal sinuses;
- allergic rhinitis;
- ARVI, which reduces both local immunity in the nasal cavity and general body protection;
- developmental defects of the nasal structures;
- repeatedly performed sinus punctures.
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults
The first characteristic symptoms of sinusitis will depend on the form of the disease. In adults, the common signs for acute or chronic sinusitis of any location are as follows:
- nasal discharge: usually yellow or green, but may be mucous, transparent;
- body temperature increase;
- symptoms of intoxication: weakness, nausea, lack of appetite, sleep disturbance.
Sinusitis - symptoms
In this disease, inflammation develops in the largest air sacrum, which is located below the cavity of the orbit.
This sinus is inflamed most often due to its localization and immediate "convenient" communication( anastomosis) with the nasal cavity.
Acute antritis is shown with such symptoms:
- pain on one or both sides of the nose;
- it has a bursting character, stronger in the mornings, it decreases with the content of the nose;
- pains in the upper teeth;
- can be: redness of the skin in the infraorbital area, edema of the cheek;
- purulent or mucocutaneous discharge from the nose;
- obstructed nasal breathing;
- fever and symptoms of intoxication;
- with tenderness on the maxillary sinus marked soreness.
- discharge from the nose may not be at all, so they can be plentiful;
- bad breath;
- smell disturbance;
- headache - from the side of the sinus.
See also: symptoms and treatment of sinusitis.
Frontline - symptoms
Acute frontitis manifests itself:
- pain in the superciliary area - with one or two sides, which is especially strong in the morning;
- , when pressing on the area above the inner corner of the orbit, there is soreness;
- may be puffiness in the area above the eyebrow and swelling of the upper eyelid;
- in severe cases, a person feels pain in the eyes, he develops photophobia;
- increase in volume and change in the nature of discharge from the nose
- body temperature increased;
- symptoms of intoxication are expressed.
See also: symptoms and treatment of the frontitis.
Etomoiditis - symptoms
Acute process manifests itself with such symptoms:
- headache without any specific localization;
- pain in the nose or inner corner of the eye;
- edema and redness in the region of the inner edges of the eyelids - the upper and lower;
- with a purulent process in the sinus cells can be not only the swelling of the eyelids, but also protrusion and deflection to one side of the eyeball;
- discharge from the nose;
- increased body temperature.
Sphaenoiditis - symptoms of
In this acute inflammation of the sphenoid sinus localized behind the nasal cavity, the following symptoms are observed:
- headache - immediately and in the area of the crown, and in the eye socket, and in the back of the head and in the back of the head;
- may be a sharp decrease in vision on one or two eyes;
- one-sided inflammation of the mucous membrane of the throat.
Diagnosis of sinusitis
Suspected of a person having one of the types of sinusitis can be based on complaints that are confirmed by a picture obtained by examining the nose by an ENT doctor.
Finally, the diagnosis is made according to the data of the x-ray examination of the sinuses, and in a number of cases( with suspicion of sphenoiditis, etmoiditis, for the diagnosis of the chronic process), a computed tomographic examination of the paranasal sinuses is required.
Treatment of sinusitis
This group of diseases can be treated both conservatively and operatively. Indication for surgical intervention is determined by an ENT doctor.
Acute sinusitis is usually treated conservatively with:
- washes the nose with saline solutions;
- instillation of the nose in the supine position on the side where the sinus is located, vasoconstrictive drops: "Sanorin", "Nazol", "Tanos";
- locally instilled drops with antibiotics: "Tziprolet", "Normaks";
- administration of anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets( "Naise", "Ibuprofen");
- in the presence of purulent contents in the sinus - antibiotics intramuscularly: "Lincomycin", "Ceftriaxone", "Fortum";
- antihistamines: "Zodak", "Loratadin", "Erius";
- with 5-6 days are appointed fizioprotsedury: microwave, sollyks, blue light lamp.
In addition to taking the contents for bacteriological analysis, the sine is washed with antibacterial and antiseptic agents.
Complications of sinusitis
Acute sinusitis can be complicated:
- transition to chronic;
- brain abscess;
- with etmoiditis and sphenoiditis - optic neuritis, phlegmon of the orbit cavity;
Prophylaxis of sinusitis is the treatment of rhinitis and the diseases that caused them( SARS, measles, scarlet fever), prompt correction of anatomical disorders in the nasal cavity( curvature of the septum, adhesions and hypertrophy of the shells).A timely dental treatment is mandatory.
Also an important factor of prevention is the increase of nonspecific resistance of the organism with the help of hardening, sport and proper nutrition.
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