1) Exudative, that is, during its development, an inflammatory fluid is released that can be serous or purulent.
2) Productive, when under the influence of microorganisms there is a proliferation of the sinus mucosa. Such a sinusitis can be polyposis and parieto-hyperplastic.
Causes of sinusitis
Sinusitis can be caused by pathogens such as:
is a mixed( for example, bacterial-fungal) flora.
Germs fall into the sinuses:
from the nasal cavity;
through the blood - from a remote focus of infection;
in the case of sinusitis - from the roots of molars.
There are also non-infectious inflammations of the paranasal sinuses that develop due to:
allergies( mainly on that substance whose particles were caught by air( pollen of plants, aerosols, sprays, fluff, feathers, particles of saliva on animal hair)
To the development of sinusitis predispose:
curvature of the nasal septum;
polyps in the paranasal sinuses;
ARVI, which reduces both local immunity in the nasal cavity and general body protection;
developmental defects of the nasal structures;
repeatedly performed sinus punctures.
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults
The first characteristic symptoms of sinusitis will depend on the form of the disease. In adults, the common signs for acute or chronic sinusitis of any location are as follows:
nasal discharge: usually yellow or green, but may be mucous, transparent;
body temperature increase;
symptoms of intoxication: weakness, nausea, lack of appetite, sleep disturbance.
Next, we describe the specific for each sinusitis symptoms.
Sinusitis - symptoms
In this disease, inflammation develops in the largest air sacrum, which is located below the cavity of the orbit.
This sinus is inflamed most often due to its localization and immediate "convenient" communication( anastomosis) with the nasal cavity.
Acute antritis is shown with such symptoms:
pain on one or both sides of the nose;
it has a bursting character, stronger in the mornings, it decreases with the content of the nose;
pains in the upper teeth;
can be: redness of the skin in the infraorbital area, edema of the cheek;
purulent or mucocutaneous discharge from the nose;
obstructed nasal breathing;
fever and symptoms of intoxication;
with tenderness on the maxillary sinus marked soreness.
When the remission of chronic sinusitis symptoms will differ:
discharge from the nose may not be at all, so they can be plentiful;
headache - from the side of the sinus.
When exacerbated, chronic sinusitis is almost indistinguishable from acute, with the only difference being that they are less pronounced and are rarely accompanied by a significant increase in body temperature.
See also: symptoms and treatment of sinusitis.
Frontline - symptoms
Acute frontitis manifests itself:
pain in the superciliary area - with one or two sides, which is especially strong in the morning;
, when pressing on the area above the inner corner of the orbit, there is soreness;
may be puffiness in the area above the eyebrow and swelling of the upper eyelid;
in severe cases, a person feels pain in the eyes, he develops photophobia;
increase in volume and change in the nature of discharge from the nose
body temperature increased;
symptoms of intoxication are expressed.
With a chronic front without exacerbation, the symptoms are minimal: occasionally there is pain in the forehead area, the sense of smell is broken, nasal discharge, often fetid, appears. The aggravation proceeds almost in the same way as the acute process, only without a pronounced rise in temperature.
See also: symptoms and treatment of the frontitis.
Etomoiditis - symptoms
Acute process manifests itself with such symptoms:
headache without any specific localization;
pain in the nose or inner corner of the eye;
edema and redness in the region of the inner edges of the eyelids - the upper and lower;
with a purulent process in the sinus cells can be not only the swelling of the eyelids, but also protrusion and deflection to one side of the eyeball;
discharge from the nose;
increased body temperature.
In chronic ethmoiditis, nasal breathing is disrupted, pain in the nose region occurs frequently, not strongly pronounced, and some pus may be periodically released.
Sphaenoiditis - symptoms of
In this acute inflammation of the sphenoid sinus localized behind the nasal cavity, the following symptoms are observed:
headache - immediately and in the area of the crown, and in the eye socket, and in the back of the head and in the back of the head;
may be a sharp decrease in vision on one or two eyes;
one-sided inflammation of the mucous membrane of the throat.
Symptoms of chronic sphenoiditis are almost not expressed.
Diagnosis of sinusitis
Suspected of a person having one of the types of sinusitis can be based on complaints that are confirmed by a picture obtained by examining the nose by an ENT doctor.
Finally, the diagnosis is made according to the data of the x-ray examination of the sinuses, and in a number of cases( with suspicion of sphenoiditis, etmoiditis, for the diagnosis of the chronic process), a computed tomographic examination of the paranasal sinuses is required.
Treatment of sinusitis
This group of diseases can be treated both conservatively and operatively. Indication for surgical intervention is determined by an ENT doctor.
Acute sinusitis is usually treated conservatively with:
washes the nose with saline solutions;
instillation of the nose in the supine position on the side where the sinus is located, vasoconstrictive drops: "Sanorin", "Nazol", "Tanos";
locally instilled drops with antibiotics: "Tziprolet", "Normaks";
administration of anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets( "Naise", "Ibuprofen");
in the presence of purulent contents in the sinus - antibiotics intramuscularly: "Lincomycin", "Ceftriaxone", "Fortum";
antihistamines: "Zodak", "Loratadin", "Erius";
with 5-6 days are appointed fizioprotsedury: microwave, sollyks, blue light lamp.
In case of ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and maintenance of severe symptoms of intoxication, sinus puncture( in the case of sinusitis and frontal sinusitis) or more serious surgical interventions in other sinuses is performed.
In addition to taking the contents for bacteriological analysis, the sine is washed with antibacterial and antiseptic agents.
Chronic sinusitis is treated in some cases conservatively and with the help of physiotherapy methods, in polypous and hyperplastic processes, surgical intervention is performed.
Complications of sinusitis
Acute sinusitis can be complicated:
transition to chronic;
with etmoiditis and sphenoiditis - optic neuritis, phlegmon of the orbit cavity;
Prophylaxis of sinusitis is the treatment of rhinitis and the diseases that caused them( SARS, measles, scarlet fever), prompt correction of anatomical disorders in the nasal cavity( curvature of the septum, adhesions and hypertrophy of the shells).A timely dental treatment is mandatory.
Also an important factor of prevention is the increase of nonspecific resistance of the organism with the help of hardening, sport and proper nutrition.
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