• Development of a child's speech 2-3 years

    Mastering speech is of great importance for different aspects of the child's mental development. Speech gradually becomes the most important means of transferring the social experience to the child, managing his activities. Under the influence of speech, his mental processes-perception, thinking, memory, are reconstructed.

    In the third year of life, the child develops his thinking intensively: he begins to compare some objects with others, establish between them the simplest connections, generalize objects according to similar signs. His attention becomes more stable: he can, without distraction, calmly listen to what the adult tells him or reads. With the development of speech, the perception and memory of the baby is improved. He begins to perceive and correctly comprehend the content of small stories, short tales, can, after an adult, repeat complex words and phrases. The increasing interest of the child in subjects and actions with them encourages him to constantly turn to adults. But he can address and receive information or help only by mastering speech. This is the main stimulus to its assimilation. The passive and active vocabulary of the child is quickly replenished: by the age of three, it reaches about 1000-1200 words. In addition to nouns and verbs, the child increasingly uses adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, pronouns. Along with the expansion of the vocabulary and the refinement of pronunciation at this age, further mastering of the grammatical structure of the native language takes place. The child freely connects several words to whole sentences( Mom, where did you go?), Agreeing on them in gender, number and case, although in grammatical terms his speech is not always correct. In conversation with adults, the kid basically uses simple sentences. He already speaks so much that he can explain what he needs, tell what he saw, he easily communicates with strangers, with peers.

    In the third year of life, the child learns a number of new sounds, begins to pronounce soft whistling: [c '], [s'], softened [q]( crochet instead of heron), sound [l'].However, the pronunciation of many sounds is still far from perfect, which at this age stage is characteristic of children's speech, since the mobility of the muscles of the tongue and lips is not yet sufficiently developed. Many difficult sounds the child replaces with easier to pronounce. Thus, the sibilant sounds( [w], [w], [w '], [wt']) often replace the baby with soft whistling: a hat( hat), zyk( beetle), tsyaynik( kettle), senok( puppy).Sometimes, instead of sound [h '], a child can pronounce [t']: tsyas( hours).Some children at this age replace the hissing sounds with hard whistling: a hood instead of a cap;hard whistling-soft whistling: sledge( sledge), ziaika( bunny).Consonants [p], [p '], [n] are absent or replaced by the sounds [n], [d]: yba( fish), gia( dumbbells), yaboko( apple), double( door), golubi( pigeons), me( chalk).

    Timely development of speech in all healthy, mentally full-fledged children occurs only if the people close to the child close with him from the first months of his life. The parents should be alerted by a toddler who says little or hardly speaks at the third year of his life. In this case, it is necessary to find out the reasons for the lag in the development of speech.

    Speech delay is caused by the following reasons:

    first, the disease of the ears and nasopharynx, as well as long-term serious illnesses that lead to physical exhaustion;

    secondly, the delay in the development of speech causes and various lesions of the central nervous system, which are accompanied by general mental retardation;

    third, the disadvantages of education, when a child does not receive enough attention from adults when not engaged.

    In the first two cases it is necessary to see a doctor as soon as possible in order to start treatment in a timely manner. In the case of pedagogical neglect, the child should be engaged in correcting errors in his upbringing. It should not be forgotten that the longer the lag in the development of speech lasts, the more difficult it is to catch up the lost and the detrimental consequences. Sometimes speech lagging, which began in early childhood and is not corrected at the right time, can lead to a significant delay in the mental development of , "the scientist NM Shchelovanov wrote. Therefore, constant attention to the child's speech is an important task of his upbringing: it is necessary to help him expand his vocabulary, correct inaccuracies in the grammatical structure of his speech, teach correctly to build sentences and, of course, answer his numerous questions.

    The development of speech is closely connected with the expansion of the child's circle of ideas about surrounding objects and phenomena. The kid will be able to talk about the subject only when he has a fairly clear idea of ​​him, to know about his appointment, the way of application.

    A child at this age is interested in everything that he sees around, and the time of endless questions begins: "What is this? Why? Why? "Parents should not leave them unattended. Having received an answer to the question of interest to him, the child will often turn to adults, which, in turn, develops his speech. Adults, giving the correct and accessible understanding of the child's explanations, develop the inquisitiveness of his mind, the desire to learn, to understand.

    In the third year of life, the baby is already familiar with many items - toys, clothes, dishes, food, furniture, that is, items that he sees daily, which he constantly uses. However, he does not always know how some of them are called, for what purpose they serve, how to use them. In order to expand the child's ideas about these subjects, not only call them, but also indicate their purpose, some properties, qualities: "This is a sugar bowl. It contains sugar. It's a shovel, it's digging the earth. "The child, of course, does not immediately begin to use new words in speech. First he will learn to find these objects among others. And only with repeated repetition will not only learn how the objects are called, but also include these words in their active vocabulary.

    To test how a child learns new words, concepts, after a while ask him what kind of thing is, why he needs it. For example, why you need a plate, a cup, a saucer;why you need a table, chair. Some older children often understand the purpose of the subject unambiguously. For example, believe that the paper is needed only to draw on it. Therefore, already at this age stage, expand the range of ideas about objects that have a variety of purposes.

    The dictionary of a child of this age is still rather poor in adjectives. Therefore, pay attention to the color of objects, their size, shape. This will not only enrich the child's speech, make his statements more detailed, full, but will also broaden the perception of the world around him.

    When you come from the store with purchases, do not rush to spread them on the table. Do this with your son or daughter. Taking out a tomato from the bag, ask the baby: "What is this?" - "Tomato," he replies.- "What color is a tomato?" If the kid does not know, say: "Red."Suggest repeating this word. And then point to the form: "The tomato is round, like a ball, like a small ball"( that is, compare it with other objects that are already familiar to the child).Then, along with the baby, take out the other vegetables from the bag: cucumbers, onions, carrots, radish. If he can not name them, tell him, indicate the color, shape, compare with the vegetables already known to him.

    An adult can always find an occasion to draw the child's attention to the quality, the quality of the object, the size, color or shape: "The daddy has a white scarf, and our Tanya has blue, the daddy has a big cup, and Tanya has a small one," etc..

    Considering together with the baby colored illustrations, pictures, ask him what is pictured in the picture, what color the object is."Vova, this is what?" - You ask, pointing to the ball."The ball," he replies.- "What color is the ball?" If the child does not know, then call yourself: "This ball is yellow"( the word "yellow" is highlighted with a voice).Then, to check how the child remembered and learned the word, ask him: "Which ball is the boy's?"

    If the picture shows two or more identical objects but different in size or color, then after the child calls them,ask him if they are the same or not. If the child can not say how they differ, help him: "This doll is big. And this doll is small. Show me where the little doll is, where the big one is, where the doll is in the red dress, where in white. "So the child not only learns and remembers the size and color of objects, but also learns to compare, compare, distinguish, combine similar phenomena. And let you at this stage do not worry that the kid incorrectly utters some words, says balsa or slander instead of a big, red. It is important that it correctly establishes the relationship between the size, color and word, which denotes them.

    Considering the pictures in the book with the baby, comment on what he saw: "Here is a green ball, it is round, it is held by a girl", etc. Invite the child to name the subject( "Who is this? What is this?") And indicate the action( "What does?").If the kid is unfamiliar with the subject or title of the action, answer by yourself, and then ask the child to repeat the words.

    Call the actions that people do, the child himself: the mother sews, the grandmother knits. And verbs should be used not only in the present tense, but also in the past, in the future: I washed, ironed, cooked porridge, wrote a letter;I will wash, iron, cook porridge, write a letter. Ask him during the game what he does."I'm playing," the kid says. After the game, ask what he just did: he played, washed his hands. Ask him what he will do next. If the child made a mistake, correct it.

    New, unfamiliar items the child wants to touch, to properly consider, to learn what to do with them. Avoid permanent "can not", "do not you dare," "do not touch."If a child is interested in this or that subject, name it, tell about its properties, qualities. So, if on the street the attention of the kid was attracted by a cat or a dog, then approach her, consider as follows: tell the baby what a beautiful cat, what striped back, white paws, long mustache and tail.

    At home select images with images of different animals: cats, dogs, cows, horses. Carefully consider them together with the child, ask him to show who is depicted where.

    Acquaintance of the child with the animal world begins quite early. He is bought toys, depicting certain animals, read stories about them, poems, some he sees on the street, at home. But if the baby easily remembers and properly names adult pets, then often mistakes when talking about their young, for example: a puppy calls a dog, a calf a cow, and pigs, as a rule, are not pigs, but pigs. Pick up drawings( or illustrations from books) depicting some pets and their cubs( a cat with a kitten, a dog with a puppy, etc.) to teach the child how to form words correctly. Consider them, name the animals depicted, say that the cat has kittens, etc. Then ask the child to show where the animal( calf): "Light, where is the cat? And where are the kittens? "Then let the kid himself call them. So gradually accustom the child without reliance on pictures to form words correctly.

    The development of understanding speech, expanding the passive and active vocabulary of a child, clarifying the meanings of words is facilitated, for example, by such tasks: among several toys( pictures) find the desired-elephant, hare, crocodile;find the toy of the desired color-green, red or yellow cube, ball;name the objects, their color, size( the ball is red, the machine is big).

    To make the speech understandable to listeners, it is not enough to have a certain stock of words, one must also be able to properly connect them with each other, that is, grammatically correct use.

    In the third year of life the child builds more complex offers than at the early age stages. In his speech there are adjectives, conjunctions, prepositions, with which he begins to use, but is not always true. To clarify and consolidate the correct use of prepositions( first simple, and then complex) ask the child such questions, responding to which he is forced to use them. Put the doll on the table and ask: "Where is the doll?"( On the table.) Then put the car under the table and ask the baby: "Where is the car?"( Under the table.) Then put the doll in the box and ask: "Where is the doll?"( The doll in the box.) This not only clarifies the child's spatial representation of the location of objects, but also fixes the correctness of using some simple prepositions: on, in, under, etc. If the child finds it difficult or gives wrong answers, correct it.

    Often at this age the child makes mistakes in matching words one, many with nouns in the plural. Considering together with the child pictures, ask him to show on which of them one apple( one pencil) is depicted, and to which of them there are many( apples, pencils).Then ask how many apples are in this or that figure, how many pencils, how many items there are in the room: chairs, books, plates, tables.

    The expansion of the vocabulary, the refinement of the meanings of words is greatly helped by the joint games of the adult and the child. So, while telling what you are doing, simultaneously contact the child with questions: "Now we'll build a house for the bear. We will make walls of red cubes. From which cubes will we make the walls? "-" Of the reds, "the child enters into the conversation."We need green cubes for the roof. And where do we have green cubes? "-" Here they are, "says the child, giving green cubes."What kind of roof will we have?" - "Green," says the child."And now what do we need to do so that the bear could enter the house?" If the child finds it difficult, say: "The door".

    In communication with the child, it is necessary to take into account the level of his speech development, use simple and short phrases, use words, accessible and understandable to the child. But at the same time, try to diversify your speech, use epithets, comparisons, synonyms( words that are close in meaning).

    Children with great pleasure listen to fairy tales, stories( small in volume and simple in content).They can read and tell the same works several times, the interest from them to them, as a rule, does not decrease. After the book is read, talk with the child about her characters, about their characters, ask him a few questions, ask them to tell the content.

    A child at this age gladly arranges whole words, lines, in a familiar poem. When reading, you should often pause to allow the child to insert the desired word( it is like a joint reading).

    Children's books should always be in a place accessible to the kid so that he can use them independently( see illustrations, tell their contents to a bear, doll).Teach your child to take care of books. If they are torn, "treat" them.

    The ability of a child to easily imitate the speech of adults favors the formation of the sound side of speech: the baby learns to pronounce the sounds of his native language correctly, clearly and clearly reproduce words and phrases, speak loudly enough, use tempo, use intonational means of expressiveness. These skills, in turn, are formed on the basis of well-developed auditory perception( the ability to hear and listen to the speech of others) due to the clear work of the articulatory apparatus. Therefore, it is very important to teach the child to listen to the sounds around him, to differentiate between different sounds;to strengthen the articulatory apparatus, that is, to develop the mobility of muscles that take part in the formation of sounds.

    The development of auditory perception will help various kinds of sound games, for example:

    • "Guess what sounds."Pick up 3-4 sounding toys: a rattle, children's musical instruments( a drum, a pipe, a bell);clockwork machine. First, let the baby hear what "voice" each toy has;then ask him to turn away and reproduce the sounds. The child must guess which toy sounded.

    • "Guess where it sounds".The child turns away, and the adult claps his hands, rattles the rattle on the left, right, above or below. The kid must determine where the sound comes from. If the house has a portable receiver( or tape recorder), the adult, including it, hides in an easily accessible place for the child. The kid must guess where the sound comes from.

    • "Guess whose voice it is."Preliminarily introduce the child to the fact that objects, animals and insects can produce a particular sound, or pick up the onomatopoeia with which he was familiar before. The kid must guess which object, animal or insect you are imitating: "Uh-uu"( locomotive buzzing), "meow-meow"( cat mewing), "tick-tak"( clock tick), "z-z-z "(hum of a mosquito)," ж-ж-ж "(buzzing beetle).

    • "Guess which clock ticking".Invite the child to listen to how the large( wall) clock is ticking( loudly say "tick-so"), and how the small( wrist) watch goes( say "tick-so" quietly).Then, repeating this sounding then loudly, then quietly, ask the baby to determine when the big clock is ticking, and when the small watch.

    Simultaneously with the development of auditory perception, it is necessary to improve the pronunciation of speech: to strengthen the muscles of the articulatory apparatus, to bring up the correct pronunciation of sounds.

    In most children of the third year of life, the movements of the tongue, lips, lower jaw are sluggish, slow, often inaccurate, coordination of smaller movements is imperfect. Therefore, the child pronounces many sounds incorrectly, inaccurately uses more complex words.

    These imperfections should not be considered a deviation from the norm, they are physiologically justified and legitimate. But, of course, do not wait until they disappear: they need to perform special exercises in a game form, since it is in the game that a child can repeatedly repeat the same sounds, words, without experiencing any particular fatigue, and thus exercise andstrengthen their speech apparatus.

    So, for example, ask the child to put a doll( a bear or a bunny) to sleep. And for the doll to quickly fall asleep, she needs to sing a song. Slowly pronounce the sound [a]( ah-ah-ah. ..), drawing the child's attention to how to open your mouth wide. Then ask the child to sing a song to the doll( teddy bear, rabbit).

    To develop the mobility of the muscles of the tongue, you can use an exercise such as licking the tongue of jam from your lips( smear the baby's jam with jam and suggest circular movements of the tongue around the mouth to lick the jam from the lips).

    The mobility of the lips develops the following exercise: the child should smile so that all the teeth are visible, then draw the lips with a tube.

    Fast muscle switching from one movement to another is facilitated by an exercise that mimics the child's crying y-u-u-ah-ah-aa( the lips when pronouncing the sound [y] are drawn out by the tube, strained, when pronouncing the sound [a] are relaxed, the mouth is open widely), or the reproduction of the hum of an airplane y-y-y simultaneously with imitation of the neighing of a horse i-and-u.

    When playing back sounds, pay attention to ensure that the child performs all the movements correctly, and the sounds are pronounced clearly.

    Games and exercises to strengthen the muscles of the articulatory apparatus are aimed primarily at the formation in the child of the correct pronunciation of sounds and words. But first the child must master each sound separately. Therefore, the work on the development of the correct pronunciation of sounds in words should begin with fixing them in an isolated form, then in small sound combinations, in words, and then achieve a correct and distinct utterance in speech.

    To clarify and fix the correct pronunciation of sounds, we offer a few simple games.

    • "Show me how Lalya cries."Stretch loudly and distinctly pronounce the sound [a]( ah-ah-ah. ..), demonstrating that the Lalya doll is crying. Then invite the baby to reproduce the crying doll. Make sure that the child opens his mouth wide enough, clearly and clearly pronounces the sound.

    • "Aircraft".Invite the child to listen to how the aircraft is buzzing: to pronounce the sound distinctly and slowly [y].Then ask the baby to play the hum of the plane. When the child sounds, the child extends his lips forward, pronouns loudly and loudly and loudly enough [y].

    • "Horse".Show the child a horse( toy, picture), and then how she screams( laughs): say loudly and loudly the sound [and]( and-and-and. ..).Then ask the baby to show how the horse screams. When pronouncing the sound, the lips of the child should be rastyanuty;the sound is pronounced distinctly, distinctly and loudly.

    • "Lali's teeth hurt."Say: "Lali's teeth hurt, and she moans like this: oh-oh-oh. .." Then invite the child to show how moaning Lala, when her teeth hurt. When pronouncing the sound [o], make sure that the child's lips are slightly stretched forward, they are exactly rounded, and the sound is pronounced clearly, clearly and loud enough.

    Invite the child to listen to the screaming of a goat( meh-er. ..) and how the sheep screams( ble. ..).When pronouncing the sound [e], the lips of the child should be stretched, but to a lesser degree than when the sound is spoken [and].Make sure that the sound is pronounced clearly, clearly and loud enough.

    To fix the sounds [a], [y], [and], [o], [e], suggest that the child correctly and clearly pronounce them in words( stork, Anya, ear, duck, needles, wasps, donkey, Edik).

    To clarify and fix the correct pronunciation of sounds [m], [n], [b], [c], [ph], [t], [d], [n], [k], [r], [x] you can use onomatopoeia: the cow mooch-moo-u. .. Mouse peeps - pi-and. .. pi-i. .. Machine tudshch-bi-bi-bi-biip. The frog croaks - the quasqua. .. The dog barks-av-av. .. The woodpecker is tapping its beak - tuk-tuk-tuk. The bell is ringing-ding-ding-ding. .. Dudka is blowing - doo-doo. .. Let's ride on a horse-but-but-but. .. The chicken cackles - co-to-ko. .. The goose goggles -ha. .. The kid laughs-ha-ha-ha.

    These sound combinations can be used to develop auditory perception: you pronounce one or another sound combination, and the child guesses which animal it belongs to.

    Child should be taught not only clearly and correctly pronounce the sounds in words, but also speak loudly enough, at a moderate pace, using intonational means of expressiveness.

    Often children speak quietly because they can not yet economically and breathe out enough air enough, that is, to control their speech breathing. The fact is that in the process of speech, inhaling and exhaling a person are significantly different from ordinary physiological breathing, that is, from breathing alone. If, during breathing at rest, inhalation and exhalation are almost the same in duration and are carried out through the nose, during the speech the inhalation takes place quickly, and the exhalation is considerably lengthened and produced through the oral cavity. Little children in the process of speech do not know how to rationally use the air. Therefore, from the age of two, it is necessary to educate the child for proper speech breathing.

    The strength and duration of exhalation ensures smoothness of speech, timely formation of sounds, sufficient loudness of voice. So, for example, a child who irrationally uses an exhalation, often has to get air in the middle of a phrase and even a word, which breaks the fluency of the utterance. Some children, even older preschool age, may not have the sound [p] only because they can not produce a sufficiently strong exhalation, which is necessary for the vibration of the tip of the tongue when it is pronounced.

    In order to teach the child a prolonged, smooth and strong exhalation, suggest that he blow off small pieces of paper, pieces of cotton wool( fly flies, snowflakes), blow down flies from dandelions( fly parachutes) in the summer, set the paper turntables( the wind blows to the mill).The child should breathe in without lifting his shoulders and exhale continuously( suggest that the child take several papers out of the hands with one exhalation-paper on the palm so that they are separated from each other at some distance).

    To train breathing, you can say in one exhalation a lingering vowel sounds - a steam locomotive is buzzing. .. Ask the baby to combine the sound combination ay, and the transition from sound [a] to sound [y] must be done without additional inspiration.

    If even after all the exercises the child speaks quietly, pretend that you do not hear him, do not understand what he is asking, and ask him to repeat his request louder.

    In the process of working on speech breathing, the baby's clothes should be free, that is, not to embarrass the neck, chest, stomach;the room is well ventilated. You can not conduct classes immediately after meals( preferably after 1.5-2 hours).

    For the development of the child's ability to change the volume of voice, offer him the game "Whoever screams".

    • "Whoever screams".Tell the child that the big dog is barking loudly( say av-av loudly), and the little one quietly( say av-av quietly).Invite him to show how a big and small dog is barking. The child reproduces the barking of a large dog, loudly pronouncing this sound, the barking of the puppy is quiet.

    If the baby is in a hurry to express his thoughts, he speaks very quickly, then he needs to be reminded that it is necessary to speak more slowly, to show at what rate one should speak, offer to say the phrase together, and also to follow his speech.

    A child of this age can already use and intonational means of expressiveness of speech( change voice by height and strength, correctly pause, emphasize, change the pace of speech depending on the nature of the statement).Babies usually early adopt from the adult tone and the manner of their speech. The lively, emotional speech of adults serves as a good role model. Therefore, when telling or reading a fairy tale to a child, do not forget about the expressiveness of your speech.

    A kid can only correctly transmit intonations when he understands well what he is talking about. Therefore, fairy tales, stories should be selected taking into account the age of the child.

    Examining and naming objects painted in children's books, memorizing and reproducing small poems and nursery rhymes will help enrich the vocabulary, develop coherent and intonationally expressive speech, and fix the correct pronunciation of sounds, and produce a clear and distinct pronunciation of words. Constant employment with the child will help him to learn sounds in a timely manner, increase his vocabulary, learn how to correctly formulate phrases, speak clearly and understandably for others.

    • What parts of the speech does he use( does he use adjectives, numerals, pronouns, adverbs in his speech), how often does he use generalizing words( for example, a bed, a table, a chair calls furniture in one word)?

    • What kinds of offers the child uses: simple, common, complex;from what number of words is it?

    • How often does he ask questions, as the contents of small stories, fairy tales( on questions) convey, does he use intonational means of expressiveness?

    • What sounds right, which is wrong, which one does not utter at all?