How to cook food
Mar 14, 2018
In the third year of life, the child's functional capabilities not only increase, but also improve. This primarily applies to the digestive tract. Digestion becomes volatile. It can then accelerate, then slow down. Hence the tendency to thinness or fatness, fluctuations in appetite, a tendency to constipation or loosening of the stool. Completion of the formation of milk teeth and strengthening of the chewing musculature allows you to thoroughly chew food. Continues to increase the capacity of the stomach, because there is no need for strict regulation of the amount of food for one meal, and for a day. From this, however, it does not follow that one should not adhere to sound physiological norms of nutrition. At this age, the baby is given up to 1.5 liters of food per day, including 200 g for a hot dish, 200 g for tea or milk;for lunch of the first dish - 150 g, second portioned dish along with garnish - 130 g, for dessert - 100 g;for a snack - 150 g of milk or kefir, 100 g of fruit or 50 g of cottage cheese;for dinner - 200 g of vegetable puree or porridge and 150 g of milk.
The third year of life expands the range of products and changes the methods for their culinary processing. So, to the meat types recommended earlier, you can add low-fat pork and occasionally lamb. It is permissible sometimes to give the child a well-cut with natural fruit sauce, cut into small pieces. From the third year in general, you should gradually give up the rubbed food, since a child who has a full set of baby teeth, is able and must chew it himself. He should be taught a thorough chewing, to warn the food in a hurry, on the go. Prolonged feeding of the mashed food and associated inactivity of the chewing musculature delay its development and strengthening, which can cause a malocclusion.
A necessary product for young children is a liver( pate and fritters made from a cleaned liver, a liver cut into pieces, braised together with onions and carrots).It is rich not only with highly digestible proteins, but also with animal starch( glycogen), special substances that stimulate blood formation and digestion, mineral salts, vitamins.
Sausage products( doctor's, children's, dietary sausages, dairy sausages, sausages) are allowed in very limited quantities. Sometimes a snack can give children at the end of the third year of life a small piece of low-fat cooked ham( 15-20 g).
Goose and duck, smoked meat are prohibited. The total amount of meat and meat products per day is 60-70 g. The daily norm of fish is 20 g. It is impossible to prepare a dish from such a quantity of fish, therefore it is necessary to use a weekly norm( 140 g), dividing it into two meals. You can take any variety of large small-scale river or sea fish, but it is more convenient to use fish fillets. Fish can be boiled( dropping into a steep salted boiling water), churning with carrots and onions, making it cutlets or meatballs. The soaked and processed herring can be given periodically in the first half of the day with a side dish or before dinner as a snack.
Curd is usable in any cooking and at different times of the day. In the diet of the child should appear syrniki, lazy vareniki( cottage cheese in combination with flour is better absorbed).But raw cottage cheese is still preferable. You can give and cheese mass with raisins or vanillin.
In the diet included boiled( hard-boiled or in a pouch) eggs. For these purposes, only dietary eggs are used. Table eggs in children's food can be consumed only for cooking. Raw eggs are contraindicated for children, since in the raw egg white there is protein avidin, which, when absorbed, combines with the vitamin B group in biotin and inactivates it. In addition, egg whites may contain microorganisms, viruses, which, after ingesting themselves and not meeting the requisite countermeasures, multiply, causing disease.
The child needs fresh and sour milk. Fresh milk is a concentrate of living proteins, enzymes and vitamins. From it, children quickly recover, grow stronger. But the usual chilled and pasteurized milk preserves its nutritional qualities. Here and various proteins, and the most important fats, and fat-like substances necessary for the growth of nerve cells, the production of hormones, maintenance of the basic vital functions of the body. Here and milk sugar, and mineral salts, and vitamins.
Milk is usually boiled. And rightly: in boiled milk, microorganisms die, so it lasts longer. The quality of the milk varies a little: the proteins coagulate, some of them settle on the walls of the dishes, and the other floats up, forming a foam that contains 10% of proteins, the most tender and useful, a lot of fat.
No less useful and sour milk. It not only preserves the nutritional qualities of ordinary milk, but also acquires new ones. Since ancient times, people are familiar with the beneficial effect of fermented milk products. But, apparently, the most common of these is kefir. In kefir there is lactic acid, carbon dioxide, vitamins and enzymes. Kefir fungus in particular affects the proteins of milk, as if digesting them, and this saves gastric juice. Kefir well stimulates the appetite and tones up the nervous system.
In the third year of life, the daily milk norm is reduced to 600 g, of which at least 200 g should be given as kefir. Children should not give sour milk at home. It can cause digestive disturbances, and sometimes serious food poisoning, as it is curdled under the influence of putrid microbes caught in the air and is a favorable environment for the increased reproduction of these microorganisms.
The use of fats in the third year of life is basically the same as in the second year. It is necessary to combine vegetable oil and animal fats daily.
For a burgeoning skeleton of a child, many minerals are required. The greatest number of them in raw vegetables. Therefore, all the year round the child should receive daily meals from raw vegetables seasoned with vegetable oil. You can give an even salad of grated carrots, an apple with sunflower oil( o / teaspoon), and on an odd number - a salad of fresh cabbage with onions and also with vegetable oil. In the summer-autumn period, you can add radish, leaf lettuce, green onions, dill, cucumbers and tomatoes to these dishes. Sauerkraut, pickled cucumbers and tomatoes are unequal to fresh vegetables and can be used occasionally in limited quantities in the winter.
Vegetables make up a significant part of the daily ration. Their set is the same as in the second year of life. But already a significant amount of vegetables is given in raw form. In addition, extinction and baking of vegetables are widely used. Leafy greens( parsley, dill, green onions) becomes an obligatory seasoning for the first and second courses. Vegetable broths are used for cooking sauces and sauces for meat, fish and vegetable dishes.
Children need at least 300 grams of vegetables a day, only half of them can be potatoes. "Vegetables need to be cleaned so that the peel is minimally thin, since many useful substances in them are located directly under the outer shell. Do not also leave the peeled vegetables for a long time in the water: mineral salts and vitamins emerge from the tubers into the water. Therefore, when cooking, vegetables should be lowered into boiling water. Rolled vegetable proteins prevent the digestion of useful substances from the tubers. Freshly frozen berries, fruits and tomatoes retain not only the appearance and taste of fresh fruits, but also nutritional value. Thaw them at room temperature in a dry form, then immediately eat.
In the winter months, a drink from baker's or brewer's yeast is a good help in the fight against a lack of vitamins. For its preparation, take 25 g( A part of a packet) of baker's yeast( a tablespoon of liquid beer yeast or a teaspoon of dry beer yeast), 50 g of water( A glass), a teaspoon of jam or raw berries rubbed with sugar. Drink should be taken freshly prepared once a day before dinner.
The diet of toddlers in the third year of life is characterized by a wide variety of dishes containing complex starchy carbohydrates. Pasta makes you make room for porridge. There are dishes of flour: pancakes, pancakes, fritters, dumplings, pancakes.
All changes in the baby's menu both in the qualitative composition of food, and in the volume of dishes, the technology of their preparation should be introduced gradually. A rapid and abrupt change in the diet can cause disturbances in the digestive process.
Daily bread norm is 100 g, including homemade cakes. Cookies are no longer an obligatory component of the
daily diet, because the child is good at both white and black bread.
For a variety of drinks, milk is partially replaced by tea with milk, unnatural coffee, and occasionally cocoa. However, preference should be given to milk.
Attention should be paid not only to the quality of food, but also to the feeding method. The child, inflamed after walking or playing games, can not be immediately put at the table. Let the feeding be late for 15-20 minutes, but the baby will begin to eat calmed. It is necessary to wash hands before eating, even if they are clean. This helps, as already noted, to develop and fix a conditioned reflex to the separation of "ignited" gastric juice. Dishes should be served in order of priority. Toys, reading, TV distract the child. The higher the interest in entertainment, accompanying food, the less the production of digestive juices.
Each person has one or several favorite dishes. But if they are given very often, they will no longer be welcome. On the other hand, the increased growth of a child requires a variety of food. To unloved food, you can accustom it by mixing it in small, but increasing quantities to another dish. A child does not need to be forced to eat everything if he does not want to. Lack of desire is the main sign of satiety. The appetite is influenced by mental factors, so notation is never a useful seasoning for any of the dishes, as are other methods of influencing with food.
In the third year of life, it is necessary to continue teaching the child the skills of calm behavior at the table, attentiveness to other family members eating at the same time, accurate food, proper use of a spoon, napkin. It is necessary to help the child to master the use of a fork.