Frontitis: symptoms and treatment, causes of the frontitis

  • Frontitis: symptoms and treatment, causes of the frontitis

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    What is this - the frontitis is an inflammation of the frontal sinus, which belongs to the adnexal sinuses of the nose.

    This problem is one of the most urgent in modern otolaryngology, since these patients account for 15 to 35% of all patients with ENT hospitals.

    According to statistical data, the frontal sinus involvement in frequency of occurrence is on the third place among all sinusitis.

    Reasons for the occurrence of

    Why does the frontite develop, and what is it? There are two frontal sinuses( right and left), each of which opens into the middle nasal passage. Therefore, it is more appropriate to speak not of sinusitis( frontitis), but rhinosinusitis, when the frontal sinus and the nasal cavity are involved in the pathological process.

    It should be noted that the opening of the frontal sinus and maxillary located almost in the middle of the nasal passage. Therefore, the infectious and inflammatory process easily penetrates from one sinus to another. This means that the frontitis is often complicated by sinusitis and vice versa.
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    The development of the inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses can occur under the influence of general and local causative factors that can be combined with each other. Common factors include:

    1. 1) The state of immunity and effectiveness of immune reactions
    2. 2) Constitutional features that affect the features of the structure of the frontal sinuses of the nose
    3. 3) Various environmental factors that may have adverse effects.
    Local factors that increase the likelihood of developing the frontitis are:

    1. 1) Disturbance of the frontal sinus sinus drainage function
    2. 2) Disturbance of the sinus sinus ventilation function 3) Mucociliary cleaning system failure.
    Local factors can be represented by the following pathological processes and conditions:

    • edema of the middle nasal passage
    • hypertrophy of the median nasal concha
    • polyps in the nose
    • hyperplasia of the mucosa
    • curvature of the nasal septum.

    Against the background of these predisposing factors, the penetration of microorganisms that cause the development of the inflammatory process is quite easy.

    The source of the infection can be:

    • traumatic nose injury
    • dental diseases
    • microcirculatory disturbance.
    The main causative microorganisms in the development of the frontitis are:

    • pneumococcus
    • staphylococcus
    • streptococcus
    • influenza viruses
    • adenoviruses
    • fungi, including yeast-like ones.

    Symptoms of the

    frontitis General signs of the frontal sinus inflammatory process, which are defined both objectively and subjectively, include:

    • nasal congestion
    • edema
    • headache
    • increased blood flow.
    However, the ganglion can occur in both acute and chronic forms. This leaves a certain imprint on the appearance of certain symptoms of the disease and their severity.

    Acute frontal ganglion manifests itself with the following clinical signs:

    • body temperature rise to subfebrile digits
    • general weakness
    • malaise
    • headaches that are localized in the forehead region
    • feeling of nasal congestion with both the patient and the healthy side
    • nasal discharge
    • decreaseolfactory function.
    The exacerbation of the chronic frontal ganglion proceeds in the same way as an acute disease. During the period of remission, clinical manifestations may either be absent or be negligible. In the latter case, they include:

    • permanent odor disorder
    • recurring runny nose
    • recurrent headaches associated with an atmospheric pressure drop.

    Diagnosis of the front

    Diagnosis of the disease is carried out on the basis of an integrated approach.

    After evaluating the patient's complaints, the physician begins an objective examination and additional methods. The diagnostic search is constructed as follows:

    • Rhinoscopy
    • X-ray examination, which is performed in several projections, since the process may be limited
    • diagnostic frontal sinus puncture
    • thermographic study
    • pulsed ultrasound.
    The main rhinoscopic signs that indicate the frontitis are:

    • the presence of a pathological detachable in the middle nasal passage
    • reddening of the nasal passages
    • thickening of the mucosa.
    The following are considered to be radiographic criteria for the frontitis:

    • decrease of frontal sinus airiness( to evaluate this sign, airway of the sinus needs to be compared with the airiness of the orbit)
    • sometimes shows the level of free fluid in it( exudate).

    Treatment of the frontitis

    Treatment of acute gonorrhea and exacerbation of the chronic is carried out by the following methods:

    • discharge therapy
    • frontal sinus puncture
    • topical application of antibiotics
    • systemic use of antibiotics
    • anti-inflammatory system therapy
    • antihistamine desensitizing therapy
    • improvement of outflow of the nasal cavity.
    Unloading therapy is an improvement in the outflow of the pathological secretion from the frontal sinus by reducing the edema of the opening opening in the middle nasal passage. In addition, it facilitates the general condition of the patient.

    Drugs that can cope with this task are called decongensants. These are vasoconstrictive adrenomimetic means. To a small extent, the mucosal edema also reduces anti-inflammatory drugs. However, care should be taken when using decongensants. These include:

    1. 1) The duration of treatment should not exceed 5-7 days, as ricochet syndrome develops, or a medicinal runny nose( Vibrocil, whose active ingredient is phenylephrine, is practically devoid of this lack)
    2. 2) Use of aerosols, and notdrops, since the former are well dosed, therefore the possibility of an overdose of
    3. is excluded. 3) When side effects from oral administration appear( these drugs do not cause the development of a bounce syndrome), it is necessary to stop it( it is a sleeplessItza, tachycardia, hypertension).
    Frontal sinus puncture should be performed with strict indications. One of them is the presence of a mucopurulent secretion, since in this case the effective therapy with only conservative methods is ineffective.

    In addition, with this treatment, antibiotics, enzymes and anti-inflammatory drugs can be administered topically. When catarrhal frontal puncture is not shown. In this situation, there is only inflammatory edema, with which systemic and local complex therapy successfully cope.

    For local antibiotic therapy, in no case should you use those drugs that are intended for systemic administration. This is due to the fact that there is no possibility of their dosing, as well as impaired absorption. For this purpose Bioparox, Polidexa and others can be used.

    Systemic anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out with the help of non-steroid drugs. It can also use Traumeel C and Fenspiride. Their action is different from non-steroids. The use of essential oils, Sinupret, Fluimucil allows normalizing mucociliary clearance, which plays an important role in the process of frontal sinus repair from inflammation.

    Treatment of the frontitis at home

    At home, you can use folk methods for treating the frontitis, which are additional to the traditional therapy of this disease. They make it possible to achieve a faster, more pronounced result.

    Traditional medicine in this disease recommends using:

    1. 1) Bay leaf. In a pan throw from 5 to 10 bay leaves and boil over low heat. After that, turn off, and the person breathes this steam( steam inhalation).The duration of one inhalation is approximately 5 minutes. If necessary, it can be repeated after a while.
    2. 2) Clay. To do this, you need to prepare clay compress and apply it on the forehead, while the thickness of the compress should be about 1 cm. It is applied for 2 hours daily. Duration of treatment is 21 days.
    3. 3) Rinsing of the nose. Well-established washing with salt( 1 teaspoon), soda( pinch) and tea tree oil( 3 drops), which dissolve in a glass of water. Rinse with a small syringe.

    Complications of the frontispiece

    The lack of timely diagnosis and treatment of the frontitis can lead to the development of a number of complications. These include:

    • the transition of inflammation to the maxillary sinus located near the
    • transition of the inflammatory process to the brain with the development of encephalitis, meningitis, cerebral abscess
    • phlegmon eye socket
    • eyelid abscess, etc.
    All these complications are very serious, as they can lead to death. Therefore, for their prevention, it is necessary to contact the doctor in time for help and conduct the recommended treatment.

    Prevention of

    Prevention of frontal ganglia should be based on the following principles:

    • timely surgical correction of identified anomalies in the structure of the nose and its cavity
    • suppression of supercooling
    • strengthening of general immunity
    • timely treatment of the common cold
    • avoiding contact with possible allergens in case of increased allergic mood of the body.

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