Polyps in the nose: symptoms, treatment, removal, photo

  • Polyps in the nose: symptoms, treatment, removal, photo

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    Polyps in the nose are painless, benign growths of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity.

    Most often, the appearance of polyps resembles pea in size from 1 to 4 cm in diameter.

    In general, polyps are a complication of rhinitis( inflammation of the nasal mucosa).

    According to disease statistics, 1% of the world's population suffers. It occurs in children and adults, more often in men.

    Etiology and pathogenesis

    1. 1) Chronic rhinitis( prolonged runny nose), the causes of which are frequent colds;
    2. 2) Inflammation of the sinuses of the nose;
    3. 3) Predisposition to allergic diseases with a tendency to rhinitis;
    4. 4) Disturbance of external nasal breathing, which occurs due to curvature of the septum of the nose
    Allergic reaction or vital activity of microorganisms lead to disruption of the nasal mucosa. If after 2 weeks recovery does not occur, then, most likely, the disease has passed into a chronic form.

    Altered, under the influence of the pathological process, the mucous membrane of the nose replenishes the performance of its functions due to hyperplasia( proliferation and thickening) of the tissue. Thus, polyps are formed. Often a similar process occurs in the paranasal sinuses of the nose.
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    Depending on the localization, the following are distinguished:

    1. 1) Ethidoid polyps - formed simultaneously from both sides predominantly in adults;
    2. 2) Anthrocoanal polyps - formed from one side. Occur in childhood.
    The dimensions of the polyps are reflected in the stages of the disease:

    1. 1) At the first stage of the , the outgrowths cover less than half the space of the nose;
    2. 2) In the second stage of , the polyps cover more than half of the lumen of the nasal cavity;
    3. 3) In the third stage of the , there is no free space in the nasal cavity from the polyp.

    Symptoms of polyps in the nose

    Polyps in the nose in the first stage of their development have the symptoms of a common runny nose, nasal congestion. Common signs of the disease:

    1. 1) Mucus hypersecretion by the membrane of the nose in its cavity. The nature of mucus( serous, purulent, etc.) depends on the manifestation of the vital activity of microorganisms;
    2. 2) Constant nasal obstruction, the cause of which is a mechanical obstruction in the form of a polyp;
    3. 3) Open mouth;
    4. 4) Frequent sneezing, which occurs due to irritation of the cilia with polyps;
    5. 5) Change in the perception of odors until complete loss of sensitivity to them. This pathological process is associated with the disruption of the receptors due to the proliferation of connective tissue;
    6. 6) Nasal congestion arising from the violation of the passage of air through the nasal passages, which take part in the formation of the voice;
    7. 7) Periodic headaches occur due to hypoxia, as well as inflammation of the sinuses of the nose.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    The diagnosis and treatment of the disease is handled by an otolaryngologist. The diagnosis is preceded by a survey with details of complaints and examination of the nasal mucosa( rhinoscopy).

    Clarification of the location of polyps is only possible after x-rays of the sinuses of the nose or computed tomography. To clarify the nature of the disease, allergic tests and other laboratory methods are performed.

    Treatment, removal of polyps in the nose

    The choice of method of treatment depends largely on the cause, stage of the disease, as well as the age of the patient. To the conservative( medicamental) methods of treatment is the prescription of medicines. Diseases of the nasal mucosa of the inflammatory nature are treated with antibiotics.

    With allergic rhinitis, contact with the allergen is excluded, and antihistamines are prescribed, as well as mast cell stabilizers.

    Steroid( hormonal) drugs eliminate swelling and inflammation of the mucous membrane, but also reduce the size of the polyp. To improve the protective properties of immunity immunomodulators are prescribed.

    Surgical treatment is indicated in the following cases:

    • is the third stage of the disease, in which the polyp completely closes the nasal passage;
    • total absence of smell;
    • nasal discharge with an unpleasant odor, etc.
    Variety of surgical interventions:

    1. 1) Polypotomy - mechanical removal of polyps with the help of a special medical instrument - a hook Lange, reminiscent of the appearance of a loop. The operation is performed after the introduction of an anesthetic solution into the polyp area. According to statistics, relapse after this intervention occurs in every second patient;
    2. 2) Endoscopic method removal of polyps involves the introduction into the nasal cavity of a special device - an endoscope. With his help, the doctor examines the image on the monitor and judges the pathological process and further manipulation. A variety of the endoscopic method is surgical intervention with the use of a special device called the shaver. With its help, the polyp is removed with maximum accuracy to tissues without pathology. The result of the operation is the reduction of the recovery period. This is one of the few methods in which the probability of occurrence of polyps is again minimal;
    3. 3) laser therapy is performed after patient preparation( anesthesia) on an outpatient basis. This operation is performed with minimal bleeding and inflammation of the tissues, since the beam immediately seals the vessels and disinfects.

    Traditional medicine against polyps

    Traditional medicine is well established in the complex treatment.

    Widely used drops in the nose of the following herbs: a string, anise, St. John's Wort, etc. Successfully helps to get rid of polyps celandine. From it, drops, ointments are made, and also used as inhalants. The juice and the liquid part of the plant, obtained after grinding and pressing, are used fresh.

    It is recommended to instill a few drops of juice into each nasal passage for 10 days. After a break of 10 days, the course of treatment should be repeated.


    There is a primary and secondary prevention of the formation of polyps in the nose. Primary prevention includes measures aimed at preventing the disease. They are reduced to a healthy lifestyle, timely treatment of diseases of the nose.

    To secondary prevention, drug therapy of the underlying disease, for example, asthma, as well as washing the nose with a solution containing salt, iodine, soda, etc., is added.

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