Genital warts: photos, symptoms and treatment, causes

  • Genital warts: photos, symptoms and treatment, causes

    Genital warts are a viral disease that affects mainly the mucous membranes of the genital organs and the skin around them.

    Other names of the disease: genital warts, viral papillomas, etc.

    occurs most often during active sex life with the same frequency, both in men and in women.

    Causes of Condyloma

    The causative agent is the filtering DNA-containing virus( Papillomatae condylomatis), which belongs to the family of PAPOVA viruses.

    It is transmitted from person to person through damaged skin( cracks, abrasions), during sexual contact through the mucous membranes, as well as during the intranatal period of childbirth, that is, at the time of passing the child through the birth canal.

    In the environment, the virus quickly dies, which is why other ways, including contact( through clothing, when shaking hands through intact skin) are unlikely to spread.

    Local irritants, which include: discharge from gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc., contribute to the emergence of clinical symptoms of the disease.

    Symptoms of condylomata

    The person with the obvious clinical form of the disease is especially dangerous.

    The latent( incubation) period lasts from 2 to 8 months. Its duration depends on the status of the immune status, the presence of concomitant diseases, more often sexually transmitted, weakening, including, the local system of immune protection.

    The disease can have the following clinical symptoms:

    1. 1) Carrier, in which a person does not show any symptoms, but he is the source of the virus. A carrier condition is associated with a good immune response that masks the virus, keeping it from manifesting the disease. At sexual contacts from the carrier the virus is transmitted to the sexual partner, who after a while can have condylomas;
    2. 2) The manifest form of the disease, which manifests itself as the most important and in most cases the only symptom for it - is the formation of the skin on the skin - outgrowths( malignant formations) on a thin stalk.
    The size of condylomas varies from a few millimeters to 2 - 4 cm. Sometimes they merge into scallops, resembling cauliflower in appearance.

    The color of the warts is more often bodily, but can be pink, bright red( pigmented).When you touch the condylomies, there are unpleasant sensations in the form of itching, a little soreness, bleeding. The localization of genital warts is closely related to the entrance gates of the virus:

    1. 1) In men, it is a scrotum, a frenum of the foreskin and the glans penis especially near the urethra;
    2. 2) In women it is the area of ​​the clitoris, small and large labia, cervix, vagina;
    3. 3) Associates, regardless of gender, after anal and oral sex acts, condylomas can occur in the anus, oropharynx, perineum and rectum.
    Condylomas can pass independently, but can change, increasing or decreasing in size: it all depends on the immunity of their host. For example, in people with immunodeficiency( with HIV infection), condylomas are formed in large numbers with a tendency to relapse.

    For the pregnancy period, temporary immunodeficiency is also characteristic. It is not by chance that at this time women become aggravated with chronic diseases and "glued" new ones. If there is a dormant virus in the body of a pregnant woman, then most likely, its finding will end with a manifestation of the disease.

    It is believed that a person with a normal immune response is only a temporary carrier. On average, the duration of the carrier is no more than 8 months. A year after infection, only one in three people remains infected.

    What is the danger of genital warts?

    Two types of viruses are conventionally distinguished. The first type includes viruses with high carcinogenic risk. The main danger of the presence of these viruses( 16, 33, 39, 45, etc.) in the body is not the formation of condyloma, but the likelihood of developing cancer( cancer of the cervix, vulva, penis, etc.).

    However, for the emergence of cancer of a single "bad" virus is not enough. Complicate the risk of oncology, chlamydia, heredity, bad habits, immune status.

    The second group includes viruses( 6, 11, 42, 54 and other types) that have little involvement in oncological and precancerous diseases and except for cosmetic defects on the mucous membranes and skin in the form of outgrowth, basically nothing more.

    Diagnosis of condylomas

    To determine the disease is usually not difficult. One clinical symptom and a patient's questioning is enough to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe the treatment that the following specialists are engaged in: gynecologist, urologist, dermatovenerologist, surgeon, and at localization of condylomas in the oral cavity - an otolaryngologist.

    In case of doubt, differential diagnosis( comparison of symptoms) with such diseases as: squamous cell carcinoma, syphilis, scabies lymphoplasia. From the laboratory tests, the doctor prescribes the delivery of strokes for STDs, as well as blood for HIV infection.

    In women, as a result of colposcopy, cytology of the cervix is ​​performed. In men, as a result of urethrocopy, a smear and a biopsy( a piece of tissue) are taken for examination. One of the reliable laboratory tests of the virus DNA is PCR.

    How to treat genital warts?

    Currently, there are no medicines that would forever be able to rid the person of the virus. Perhaps, only to reduce its quantity in the body and increase the immunity, under the influence of which the virus will not manifest itself.

    As a rule, the treatment of genital warts is subdivided into local( destruction of rashes) and general, which includes the use of cytotoxic( Vartek cream) and immunomodulating medications. In addition, physiotherapy is effective.

    Methods of treatment that target the virus are divided into the following categories:

    1. 1) Influence on viral replication;
    2. 2) Stimulation of immunity at the cellular level;
    3. 3) Effects on the transcription and transformation of the virus DNA;
    4. 4) Currently, many hopes for the prevention of the disease are attributed to vaccination with drugs such as "Cervarix" and "Gardasil."
    After the introduction of the "Cervarix" vaccine, the antibodies produced by the body have been preserved for 7 years. Another vaccine "Gardasil" does not treat existing condylomas and is introduced to non-infected women, reducing the future risk of cancer and precancerous diseases of the cervix.

    Almost any treatment is accompanied by the removal of genital warts. There are several ways, the choice of which depends on the area and volume of rashes.

    1. 1) The chemical method involves applying chemicals( for example, "Solkoderm") directly to a small area of ​​rashes with extreme caution in order to avoid burns and scar changes of surrounding tissues. One effective remedy is the celandine juice, which is used for single rashes;
    2. 2) The physical method includes electrocoagulation, laser therapy, cryodestruction;
    3. 3) The surgical method allows the specialist to remove the formation with a scalpel or, for example, a urethroscope.
    Physiotherapeutic methods of treatment:

    1. 1) Laser irradiation of blood in combination with the appointment of immunomodulators affects the regress of pathological manifestations and increases the period of remission( attenuation of symptoms) by 3 times;
    2. 2) Infrared laser therapy activates the endocrine glands and activates immunity;
    3. 3) Drug electrophoresis activates T - lymphocytes and suppresses the causative agent of the disease.
    During the course of treatment, sexual intercourse should be excluded.

    Prevention of genital warts

    Avoid accidental sexual intercourse. Use of condoms during sexual intercourse with "little-known" from the point of view of diseases by sexual partners.

    Vaccination for today of all girls before the beginning of a sexual life, and as men it is considered 100% protection against disease. It reduces the risk of developing cervical cancer, anus, penis, etc. Periodically( at least once a year) undergo preventive examinations with a gynecologist who can find a cervical affected with a cervix in time and prescribe a treatment.

    In case of appearance of condyloma-like formations, consult a specialist immediately.

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