Atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart, as it manifests itself and the methods of its treatment
Heart aortic atherosclerosis is a very common disease among the elderly. It is regarded as a chronic inflammation of the blood vessels, and is characterized by a constant seizure of very low density circulating blood lipoproteins.
Atherosclerotic plaques formed narrowed the lumen, thereby disrupting the blood flow. If coronary arteries are affected, the person is threatened with a heart attack if the arteries of the brain are a stroke, if the arteries of the kidneys are acute renal failure with kidney loss, etc.
Chronic inflammation of the artery is the initiating factor in the development of atherosclerosis, because it is the damaged fragment that begins to seize and accumulate cholesterol in the cells.
Risk factors can be anything that is associated with stress, pressure buildup, vascular damage and chronic diseases. For example, such factors as: hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight, diabetes mellitus, reduced thyroid function, against which the fat metabolism will be reduced, also after 40, when the amount of sex hormones decreases.
Atherosclerosis of the aorta of the heart looks like a yellow spot or already bulging over the surface of the plaque, which every day increases by several millimeters.
The aorta is sealed to the touch, because it has lost its elastic structure and its wall, damaged by the degrading factors, was replaced by a connective tissue. Under the influence of pressure, because of the broken structure of the wall of this vessel, the aorta extends with the formation of an aneurysm. It every day increases in volume, so its layers are thinned, and one day, when all the mechanisms of adaptation are exhausted, aortic rupture can occur.
Symptoms and signs of atherosclerosis of the aorta
For the notion of a clinical picture, it is necessary to understand that the aorta has two parts: the thoracic and the abdominal. The thoracic aorta supplies the entire upper half of the body, including the upper limb of the limbs. Abdominal aorta, respectively, the entire lower part. Now we will analyze in order.
Symptoms of the lesions of the thoracic aorta: for a long time is asymptomatic, and can be combined with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and arteries of the brain. The first signs usually appear after 60 years, when the body loses all functions of protection from provoking factors and the amount of damage reaches a sufficiently large value.
Usually patients complain of periodical burning, intense intensity, chest pain( aortalgia), which can be accompanied by dizziness and difficulty swallowing. When measuring blood pressure, a rise in systolic pressure is recorded, thereby increasing the pulse pressure.
Symptoms of an abdominal aortic lesion: is registered much more often than lesions of the thoracic region, but it can also be asymptomatic for a long time. The main clinical signs are ischemia of the abdominal cavity, which are accompanied by the corresponding symptoms:
Digestive disorders - characterized by a decreased appetite, impaired intestinal motility( diarrhea, constipation, flatulence);
Abdominal pain - occurs after a meal after 2-6 hours, depending on the localization of the affected area. The pain is aching, without exact localization. Usually they pass by themselves.
Thrombosis of the visceral arteries is a very serious complication, in which there can be a fatal outcome. With thrombosis of the intestinal arteries, necrosis of the intestinal branches occurs and peritonitis develops. The main complaints: pain of intense intensity, not removed by medication. In this situation, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Arterial hypertension in combination with renal failure - narrowing of the arteries of the kidneys, resulting in chronic chronic kidney hypoxia - chronic renal failure. As a result, the renin-angiotensin system is activated, which increases blood pressure.
Treatment and prevention
1 .Prevention: weight loss, nutrition adjustment with reduced intake of cholesterol, avoidance of stress, full exercise every day, normalization of hormonal status, treatment of co-morbidities( diabetes mellitus, AH), etc.
2. When the disease develops, drug therapy is prescribed to slow the formation of atherosclerotic plaques: statins, nicotinic acid, bile acid sequestrants, and much more.
3. With far-reaching atherosclerosis of the aorta, only operative treatment is shown, which consists in prosthetics of the vessel.