• Helicobacter pylori: symptoms and treatment, tests, ways of infection

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, gram-negative bacterium that parasitizes in the human body and provokes diseases of the digestive tract.

    This bacterium is by far the most studied in the world, since it is the only microorganism capable of surviving in an aggressive environment of the stomach.

    It is proved that 2/3 of the world population is infected with this microbe.

    How can I get Helicobacter pylori?

    The exact mechanism of infection is not known. It is assumed that Helicobacter pylori is transmitted by fecal-oral and oral-oral( through kisses) way. You can be infected with:

    • using a common tableware;
    • close physical contact;
    • poor handling of medical equipment( endoscope);
    • sneezing and coughing;
    • non-compliance with hygiene regulations.
    Often contamination occurs when contaminated water and food are used, mostly fruits and vegetables from the garden. Children receive this microbe from the mother through saliva, spoon and other items.

    Based on everything, helikobaterioz can be considered a family infection. If one family member becomes infected, then there is a high probability of infection of all household members.

    Symptoms Helicobacter pylori

    After Helicobacter pylori enters the stomach, it begins to secrete the products of its vital activity and damage the epithelium of the stomach, thereby causing unpleasant symptoms.

    Several forms of Helicobacteriosis can be designated:

    1) Latent form. In many people, the microorganism does not cause painful symptoms with sufficiently strong immunity. The bacterium can acquire an inactive form and activate under favorable conditions. Also, there are less or more harmful strains that are capable of damaging the mucous to varying degrees.

    Even with asymptomatic carriage, there is a functional disturbance not only of the stomach, but also of the pancreas. And with prolonged( more than ten years) finding a microorganism in the human stomach, severe consequences can develop, possibly a degeneration into cancer.

    2) Acute gastritis is manifested by pain in the epigastric region, vomiting. Usually passes into a chronic form.

    3) Chronic gastritis. It occurs in most of the world's population and is the main manifestation of Helicobacteriosis.

    Often disturbed:

    • periodic pain in the stomach;
    • nausea;
    • sensation of a full stomach;
    • heartburn;
    • increased gingival hemorrhage;
    • bad taste in the mouth;
    • burp.
    4) Chronic gastroduodenitis. The duodenum is involved in the process. Manifestations are similar to those with gastritis. There may be diarrhea or constipation, loss and loss of appetite. The severity of the changes, based on the results of endoscopy, is mild, moderate or severe.

    5) Peptic ulcer develops under the influence of various factors( smoking, alcohol, stress), but not all. Ulcers and erosions occur when the deeper layers of the gastric walls are affected. The clinic of symptoms is diverse. Pain in the upper abdomen is usually associated with eating. There is also a heaviness in the epigastric region, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, belching.

    Helicobacter pylori symptoms on the face - photo

    In 85% of people suffering from rosacea, whose symptoms appear as acne on the face, a bacterium Helicobacter pylori was detected. In addition, it can provoke the appearance of bad breath.

    Methods of diagnosis and analysis for Helicobacter pylori

    There are several methods of examination for the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    One of the most common and reliable - fibrogastroscopy with a biopsy. The mucosal tissue is examined for the presence of urease and antigens Helicobacter pylori. The effectiveness depends on the location of the biopath.

    Other diagnoses are also used for diagnosis:

    • feces analysis on H. pylori antigen. Particles of bacteria are found in the feces and on the basis of this we can judge about their presence in the stomach;
    • detection of bacteria in saliva and gum transdermal;
    • culture isolation Helicobacter pylori( bacteriological method);
    • Helicobacteriosis respiratory test helps to identify the living organisms of the microorganism in the exhaled air;
    • polymerase chain reaction( molecular genetic method);
    • blood test for IgG antibodies. This examination is not always informative, as the antibodies remain for a long time after the infection.
    There are many different ways to determine this disease, but none of them is immune from diagnostic errors and can not be considered completely reliable. Therefore, you can not give preference to any particular method, it will be more correct to combine several types of research.

    Diagnosis should be performed before and after therapy for monitoring. The control of success should be carried out 4-6 weeks after the use of medicines using at least two diagnostic methods.

    How to treat Helicobacter pylori?

    If the examination showed the presence of a bacterium, you must always consult a gastroenterologist, because only a qualified specialist can choose a helikobacter pylori regimen.

    Modern therapy of diseases associated with this bacterium is built taking into account the severity of the flow, the phase of the process and the etiological factors. Infection is eliminated only with complex, eradication treatment with antibiotics.

    How to treat Helicobacter pylori? Eradication implies the complete destruction of Helicobacter pylori bacteria in any form and contributes to a stable remission. The combination of amoxicillin, clarithromycin and rabeprazole is considered to be the most successful. This is the first-line scheme, which includes three components.

    In case of unsatisfactory results, it is proposed to use a four-component second-line scheme consisting of rabeprazole, bismuth subsalicylate, metranidazole and tetracycline. The duration of treatment is no more than 14 days.

    In parallel with eradication therapy should take probiotics( Linex, Bifiform), which reduce adverse reactions and improve the effectiveness of treatment.

    The effectiveness of therapy depends on the form of the disease, on the correctness of the treatment and on the sensitivity of the bacterium to antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment for acute gastritis or ulcers usually leads to complete recovery without health effects.

    Chronic gastritis, accompanied by atrophic changes, is treated more difficultly, but although the atrophied areas are not restored, the risk of their degeneration into a cancerous tumor is reduced.

    Treatment Helicobacter pylori folk remedies

    The effectiveness of many folk methods of treatment Helicobacter pylori is not tested by official medicine. Means for treatment are selected depending on the course of the disease. The diet excludes heavy, spicy, fatty foods and spirits.

    Before the main meals it is recommended to take infusion, which includes flowers of pears, strawberries and apple trees, as well as cowberry leaves. For 1 liter of boiled water you need to take 4 tablespoons.raw materials( a tablespoon from each plant), 30 minutes to insist, drain and take half a cup. The composition of the teas can vary.

    It is recommended also for St. John's wort, yarrow and calendula or St. John's Wort, the root of the elecampane and the gold-thousander.

    As an antimicrobial agent, alcoholic tincture of propolis can be used. Take should be 20 drops three times a day for 7 days.

    Helicobacter pylori prophylaxis

    Helicobacteriosis immunity is not produced, and the disease has a habit of recurring. Prevention lies in the observance of personal hygiene, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, timely research and treatment of the whole family, provided an infection is detected in someone from their relatives.

    There are rules to follow:

    • personal care products must be individual;
    • can not use shared utensils;
    • before eating need to wash hands;
    • does not kiss with strangers;
    • not to abuse alcohol;
    • does not smoke actively or passively.
    Vaccination from the bacterium does not exist yet, but active actions are being taken to create the vaccine. It was supposed that it could be taken with food, but it was problematic to develop a vaccine that works in the acidic environment of the stomach.

    In addition, when testing an oral vaccine, many people developed diarrhea. Therefore, for the time being, vaccination is a matter of the future, which requires significant improvements.

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