Otitis media of the middle ear: symptoms, treatment, causes
Mar 08, 2018
You can get sick with otitis not only after a strong wind and in rainy weather. Even in hot months there is a possibility of the appearance of the disease.
The most common type of ear inflammation after the external and internal is precisely the otitis media.
Causes of otitis media of the middle ear
The main cause of the disease is always an infection. These can be staphylococci, streptococci, fungi and other microorganisms. Infection taking place in a slow state can become aggravated after a severe freezing, transferred to the acute respiratory viral infection or influenza. Also the development of otitis is possible when swimming, traumatizing the ear with a sharp object.
Experts say that otitis media is most common after an infectious disease - colds, sore throats, scarlet fever, measles, flu. This is actual due to the spread of infection through the blood, and also because the nose with the ears are connected, so the infection easily penetrates further.
When the resistance of the body decreases, infections are easier to penetrate into the ear. To provoke the inflammatory process can, in addition, such diseases as diabetes, problems of the urinary system. Also, with an incorrect nose blowing through two nostrils at the same time, coughing and sneezing, infected mucus easily enters the middle ear.
Symptoms of otitis in adults
In otitis media, there are three stages of the disease:
- 1) Acute stage - catarrhal otitis. This causes and continues to develop inflammation in the middle ear. There are such symptoms as earache, congestion and discharge of pus, hearing impairment, ejaculation. Pain can be strong, shooting, pulsating, it often interferes with normal sleep. Sometimes soreness gives in the teeth, it can intensify when swallowing. All these signs are associated with the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. The body temperature rises to 37-39 degrees, the patient feels weak, his appetite decreases. When examining the ear, the doctor will see a swollen eardrum.
- 2) The second acute stage is purulent otitis media. At this stage of the disease pus is formed and accumulates in the middle ear, then the eardrum ruptures and the patient is disturbed by suppuration( see how to treat purulent otitis).At this stage, the patient's condition improves, the body temperature decreases. If the rupture does not occur on its own, the doctor makes a small puncture, which helps the patient to recover sooner. Such a procedure as puncture or paracentesis will help in the future to avoid complications.
- 3) The recovery phase. At this stage, inflammation in the middle ear decreases, gradually comes to an end of suppuration, the edges of the membrane splice. This stage ends in recovery after a couple of weeks, by this time period the hearing has to be fully restored.
Read also, treatment of external otitis media.
Treatment of otitis
Often, treatment with otitis media begins with patient compliance with bed rest. The patient is sent to hospital treatment in rare and complex cases.
Treatment begins with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy. Widely used antibiotics of general direction - Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline, Sumamed. Antibiotics should be taken orally, with suppuration recommended intramuscular or intravenous administration of drugs. To achieve maximum effectiveness, doctors recommend combining antibiotics with anti-inflammatory ear drops.
If necessary, drugs that reduce fever at high temperature are used. Reduce the temperature of paracetamol and aspirin. After consultation with the doctor use dry heat on the sick ear.
In the first stage of the disease, vasoconstrictive drops are used to reduce swelling, for example, naphthysine, pharmacoline. Such drops as otinum, normax, anauran, and also 70% alcohol will also help to get rid of unpleasant symptoms. The drug is a mixed drug, it kills bacteria, fungi and has an anti-inflammatory effect. Before you drip drops, they are slightly heated in a glass of warm water, instilled in your ear about 4 times a day.
"Blue Lamp" effectively helps with suppuration. Also at this stage will affect otipax and sophhedex. With the accumulation of purulent contents, the otolaryngologist separates the auditory passage with the help of special instruments. Such anti-inflammatory drugs as hydrocortisone are used to relieve swelling.
For the purpose of regeneration in the recovery phase of treatment, physiotherapy is used. When hearing is decreased, it is recommended to wash the auricle and pneumomassage of the tympanic membrane. As an additional treatment, multivitamins and mineral complexes are used. For chronic otitis media, antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and netilmicin are used.
See also, symptoms of otitis.
Complications of otitis media of the middle ear
Because otitis media is characterized by bright symptoms, often patients immediately rush to the clinic. If you do not go to the doctor on time, complications arise.
These include the transition of the inflammatory process into a chronic form, inflammation of the inner ear, mastoiditis, brain abscess, facial nerve palsy, and even sepsis.
Prevention of otitis media of the middle ear
Prophylactic measures to prevent middle ear otitis are aimed at normalizing the human condition. It is necessary to ensure that you do not overcool.
If focal infections are detected, treatment should be completed, as the infection from the blood, nose or throat can go to the ears. After suffering a flu or cold, the patient should be especially careful. Food should be diverse, stressful situations should be avoided.
If you are swimming, take care of your ears. In them, you can insert cotton wool, after bathing in the sea or pool, dig in ear drops. For the pool, you can use a rubber cap, so you also protect your hair from bleach.
Hygienic procedures are mandatory. It is necessary to wash off sulfur from the ears with soapy water. Do not use sharp objects to clean your ears! Cotton buds ears should be cleaned only on the outside. Take care of yourself and then such a disease as the otitis media of the middle ear will never disturb you!
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