Glomerular filtration of the kidneys: what is it, its normal values

  • Glomerular filtration of the kidneys: what is it, its normal values

    The initial stage of the process of urine formation - glomerular( glomerular) filtration is the filtration of a fluid that does not contain protein compounds from the plasma into the capsule of the renal glomerulus. Glomerular filtration of the kidneys occurs under the influence of biological, physical and chemical through the glomerular filter, which is on the way of fluid transfer from the lumen of small glomerular vessels into the cavity of its capsule.

    Structure of glomerular filter

    The glomerular filter is represented by two layers of different epithelium( endothelium of capillaries and podocytes) and basal membrane.

    • Endothelium is a flat epithelium lining the inner surface of capillaries, between the epithelial cells there are holes up to a hundred nanometers in diameter, through which water freely passes with various substances dissolved in it, but blood cells can not pass. The surface of the endothelium is covered with glycocalysis( a special membrane), which does not allow blood cells and large molecules of protein compounds to penetrate to the basal membrane.
    • The main part of the glomerular filter is the basal membrane, its function is to separate the protein compounds of the blood plasma, preventing their entry into the primary urine. The basal membrane has a negative charge, and the maximum size of its pores is up to 3 nm. Since this structure wears out very quickly, its elements are periodically restored by mesangial cells( a complete change in the basic material of the membrane occurs approximately in a year).
    • Scions of podocytes( podocytes - epithelium covering the visceral leaf of the glomerulus capsule) form the third layer of the glomerular filter, the pores between them have a diameter of up to 10 nm, are covered with glycocalysis and bear a negative charge. Myofibrils contained in the processes of podocytes periodically contract, acting as a micropump and pumping out the liquid into the cavity of the capsule.

    Filtration pressure

    Filtering pressure can be called the filtration pressure, which ensures the movement of water from the capillaries into the capsule. This force is provided by the hydrostatic pressure of blood in small vessels. Prevent filtration of primary urine pressure and oncotic pressure of plasma constituents.

    Based on this, it is possible to calculate the filtration pressure( PD) according to the formula ФД = Рг -( Ро + Рм), where Рг - hydrostatic pressure( with an average of 70 mm Hg), Ро - oncotic pressure( about 30) and Рг- Primary urine pressure( up to 20).

    The normal value of FD is, on average, up to 20 mm Hg. Art.

    What determines and how the glomerular filtration rate is regulated

    The main quantitative characteristic of the process of glomerular filtration of the kidneys is its speed. GFR( glomerular filtration rate) is the volume of primary urine that forms in the kidneys per minute.

    The factors determining the magnitude of GFR are:

    • The volume of plasma that passes through the renal cortex in a minute. Normally, with a person weighing about 70 kg, it is approximately 600 ml / min.
    • Filtration pressure, which provides the filtration itself.
    • Filtration surface, equal to about 3% of the total surface of the glomerular capillaries.

    This is important! Normally, GFR is maintained at a constant level, thanks to the mechanisms of autoregulation, it does not depend on the value of blood pressure.

    Autoregulation occurs due to:

    • Myogenic autoregulation of the tonus of the smallest arteries( arterioles)
    • Changes in the ratio of the tonus of the arthritis-bearing and bringing arterioles
    • Activations of the intrarenal humoral regulation - the renin-angiotensin system, prostaglandins and kinin
    • Changes in the number of working nephrons.

    Determination and normal values ​​of glomerular filtration rate

    GFR can be determined by comparing the amount of a specific compound in plasma and urine. In the clinic, the definition of GFR is carried out according to Robert's test( determining the creatinine clearance).

    The norm of glomerular filtration in women is up to 110 ml / min, and in men its normal value is up to 125 ml / min. During the day, approximately 170-190 L of primary urine is formed, which is close in composition to plasma, but does not contain protein compounds.

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