An additional kidney, a double pelvis in the kidney and other abnormalities of the structure and functioning of the kidneys
Kidney is a paired organ that removes nitrogen-containing slags from the bloodstream and removes them from the body, especially for urea. The main anomalies should include the following: a double pelvis in the kidney, an extra kidney, etc.
Many people with kidney anomalies do not complain about any manifestations, but sometimes due to kidney damage they stop working properly, a deficiency that can provoke a fatal outcome develops.
Causes of kidney anomalies
There are a lot of causes of anomalies in the kidneys and urinary canals. Basically, such deviations become the consequences of the impact on the body of teratogenic factors in early pregnancy. Various anomalies develop with different termination periods and damaging effects.
The most negative damaging factor is ionizing radiation, the effect of certain drugs, chemicals, steroid hormones, the development of viral pathology in the mother. Due to the large number of damaging factors, even with a careful study of the history of anomalies, it is not always possible to identify the causes of the lesion.
Kinds of kidney anomalies
- Doubling of the kidney - when the body in appearance looks like two parts, in connection with which, the kidney increases in size. At the same time, the lower and upper parts are separated from each other by a furrow having different depths, and the upper part is always smaller in comparison with the lower part. Both parts have full or incomplete, but separate blood supply. And only with full bifurcation, each part is characterized by a separate cup-pelvis system. Usually in the upper part of the calyx and pelvis remain underdeveloped, and in the lower form normally. Usually, treatment of this deviation is not required, but doubling the kidney can provoke the formation of various painful processes - pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, etc. In such a situation, an appropriate treatment is organized, involving the disposal of the organism from the underlying cause.
- Each pelvis has a ureter - the process of doubling the ureter, which may also be incomplete or complete.
- An additional kidney is when, in fact, a person has formed 3 kidneys. The third organ has its own blood supply and ureter, which flows into the bladder. The size of such an additional organ is always somewhat less than usual. The kidney is somewhat lower than the basal and, in the absence of complications, the doctor implements expectant management.
- Dilation of the pelvis is an anomaly of development in which two separate renal pelvic organs are located in the doubled kidney, which completely or partially pass into the same doubled ureter.
- Hypoplasia is a process of reducing the size of the kidney due to its inadequate development, but there are no violations in its structure and work. Often the pathology is one-sided, and it is necessary to treat it only in case of manifestations of complications.
- When the fetus develops during pregnancy, the kidney gradually shifts from the pelvic area to the lumbar region. If this process is violated, then all this provokes a dystopia in the kidney.
Diagnosis of abnormalities in the kidney
For the diagnosis of renal anomalies, the most commonly used methods are: X-ray radiography for urinary system organs, cystography and excretory urography.
Alertness of pediatricians on this issue allows early diagnosis of malformations of the organ. To this end, X-ray examinations for children who are lagging behind in physical development are often more widely prescribed, often falling ill with the accompaniment of fever.
Most often, the diagnosis is made after urography. For some patients, delayed shots are taken. In some situations, as additional methods of treatment, cystography is performed, supplementing the resulting picture of morphological abnormalities in the urinary system.
Treatment of anomalies
With a randomly diagnosed abnormality in kidney development, it usually does not cause pain, abnormal urodynamic processes and impaired renal function, so patients do not need special therapy. In such a situation, a person should be under the constant supervision of a specialist and follow his recommendations for preventing the occurrence of pathology in the abnormal kidney.
Accidental diagnosis of doubled, fused kidneys, etc.is not an indication for the organization of special treatment. If the kidney anomaly caused the formation of clinical symptoms - hypoplasia, hypertension, pain sensations, then it is necessary to carry out etiological treatment, that is, eliminate the causes of pathology. In general, therapeutic manipulations are reduced to the implementation of corrective surgical intervention. Immediately after the birth of the child, the doctor should conduct tests for the presence of abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the kidneys and, if necessary, take preventive measures and treat diseases.