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How is the removal of stones from the kidneys, the selection of an effective method

  • How is the removal of stones from the kidneys, the selection of an effective method

    The severity of the presence in the kidney stones is understood only by the person who experienced this pathology on himself and knows what is the symptomatology of renal colic when the stone begins to move to the ureter. Removal of kidney stones is done in a variety of ways, each of which is characterized by its own characteristics.

    Methods of removal of kidney stones

    Six basic methods of removing stones from the kidneys are known in medicine. To achieve the best result, some of them are realized simultaneously and vary. Everything depends on the testimony of the attending physician, it is he who decides how to remove the stones from the kidneys.

    Cannery

    For a long time, this method of removal was the most popular. Unfortunately, till now in some hospitals continue to realize cavitary operations because of absence of the qualified experts and special tools. This is the most traumatic operation, therefore complications often develop after it.

    This is important! Due to the fact that urolithiasis is prone to relapse, a repeated operation is prescribed, which causes even more serious complications. But modern medicine offers more sparing methods of surgical treatment, so you need to think carefully before approving the implementation of cavitary intervention.

    Laparoscopic intervention. Implementation of the

    method Laparoscopic surgery is less traumatic and does not involve prolonged rehabilitation. Manipulation is carried out in the space behind the peritoneum after carrying out small punctures in the abdominal cavity. The stones are removed thanks to the endoscope and small surgical instruments. This operation involves a careful stop of bleeding.

    Carrying out the lithogenetic treatment of

    This method is considered the safest way to eliminate kidney stones. It is realized under the condition that the urinary stones are localized in the lower part of the ureter. In this case, the patient is prescribed the use of special medications that help relax the ureter and provoke the independent excretion of stones.

    Do not fully rely on this technique and medications that help dissolve stones. But not all stones can be removed with the help of medicines.

    In general, people suffering from urolithic pathology develop oxalate or phosphate types of stones. They are considered insoluble. Uranium stones can be dissolved only in 30% of cases. In addition, lithogenetic therapy gives results provided that the size of the stone does not exceed 4 mm in diameter

    This is important! If large stones are diagnosed in the kidneys and can not be removed without surgery, the patient is most often assigned to destroy them by exposure to various energy flows.

    Procedure for percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy

    Removal of kidney stones by ultrasound is indicated if coral or other large stones are located in the renal pelvis or in the renal calyces. Ultrasonic lithotripsy involves the implementation of a puncture of the skin in the lumbar region. Then an endoscope is inserted into the pelvis of the kidney, equipped with an ultrasonic lithotriptor.

    Implementation of the method of wave lithotripsy

    The fragmentation of kidney stones by ultrasound is a process that helps to break down large stones into a large number of small particles that are subsequently washed out of the kidney.

    Usually, ultrasonic removal of stones from the kidneys is indicated, provided that during the diagnosis, the presence of single large stones is established.

    Laser lithotripsy. Carrying out the

    procedure Removal of kidney stones by laser is a universal method, which makes it possible to eliminate even the largest stones in the kidneys or in the ureter. During the procedure, a holmium laser made of holmium, which is a rare-earth metal, is used.

    This is important! Access to the kidneys is through the canal of the urination with a special endoscope, equipped with a small video camera and lighting devices.

    Under the action of the laser beams, the evaporation of the neoplasms is complete, and the doctor performing the laser removal of kidney stones controls the process on a special monitor screen that receives the image recorded by the camera.

    Method of pneumatic lithotripsy. Its implementation of

    This method assumes an effect on the probe from a metal that is conducted through a urethroscope, alternating between air and electromagnetic waves. Only a few accurately directed impulses allow the stone to be quickly broken down into small parts, which are then extracted from the kidney with the help of endoscopic loops and forceps.

    This technique is prohibited when crushing stones located directly in the kidneys, nor does it give results when removing too dense stones.

    Carrying out the procedure for remote lithotripsy

    This is a technique of shock-wave action, when the destruction of a stone is carried out under the action of shock waves that come from a device called a lithotriptor. Usually, the patient is anesthetized during surgery.

    When deciding how to remove stones from the kidneys, remember that shock wave lithotripsy has a lot of side effects.

    This technique sometimes causes renal colic, because when the wave is affected, the ureters are damaged by sharp stone fragments. Also from the impacts severely affected by healthy kidney tissue. When destroying high density stones with a lithotripter, it is impossible to break them completely, so several procedures may be necessary for complete destruction.

    The main indication for remote lithotripsy is the detection on the roentgenogram of stones with a diameter of more than 0.5 mm in the ureters and stones in the renal calyx and pelvis larger than 2 cm.

    In order to select the method of removing or removing stones from the kidneys, it is necessary to take into account a large number of nuances such asthe size of the stone, its density, chemical composition, location and the risk of possible complications.

    Unfortunately, the patient does not always have the opportunity to use the most appropriate method of treatment in connection with material costs or technical difficulties, because not all medical facilities are equipped with special devices and apparatuses, and also have highly skilled doctors in the field. In such a situation, patients who know that their body is prone to forming stones, it is necessary to be more careful about the prevention of pathology and not delay treatment, leading to the moment when it is impossible to prevent surgical intervention.

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