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Phosphate stones in the kidney - the distinctive features of this type of concrement

  • Phosphate stones in the kidney - the distinctive features of this type of concrement

    Phosphate stones in the kidneys differ from other types of stones in that they can quickly increase in size. In addition, it is the formation of phosphate stones that is associated with inflammation in the kidney that proceeds on this background.

    Phosphate stones are usually smooth, have a white or light gray hue and can in some situations increase in larger diameters. There are such new formations from salts of phosphoric acid and for this reason they are very easy to identify by means of ultrasound examination or by means of X-ray diagnostic methods.

    Distinctive features of phosphate stones in the kidneys

    Phosphate stones are stones that contain calcium and calcium salts of phosphoric acid. This feature of the composition makes it possible to see them during X-ray examination.

    This is important! The appearance of phosphates is the following: a smooth surface, due to which they rarely injure the mucous surface in the urinary canals and do not provoke such a characteristic manifestation of urolithiasis, like blood in the urine. The color of the stones varies most often from white to gray, and the shape and size can be very different.

    Kidney stones in kidneys can grow to relatively large sizes. It is phosphate stones that can cause the formation of coral stones, which fill the entire hollow part of the kidney - pelvis and calyx. This process necessitates the realization of a nephrectomy - complete surgical removal of the organ.

    These stones are characterized by a rapid increase, and they are able to grow to the dimensions of coral calculus in just a few weeks from the beginning of their formation. The structure of such formations is fragile and they are easily destroyed, therefore some of them are used to eliminate lithotripsy or to differently crush stones.

    Also phosphate stones are considered infectious, because they are formed against the background of an infectious disease of the body - cystitis or pyelonephritis. Basically, phosphate stones expand already against the background of infection, which is provoked by the protease bacterium, which penetrates into the kidneys through the urinary canals from the intestine when the person does not observe the basic rules of personal hygiene.

    Phosphates are formed only under alkaline conditions of urine. In a normal state, urine is slightly acidic, and it is this acidity that resists the formation of kidney stones. For example, urate is formed in acid urine, in oxalate - oxalates, and in alkaline - phosphates. It turns out that maintaining the correct acidity of urine helps prevent pathology.

    This is important! Good solubility of phosphate stones makes it possible to apply the dissolution technique by changing the acidity of urine - the realization of special nutrition, consumption of mineral waters and the intake of special medicines.

    What causes kidney phosphate formation?

    To the formation of phosphate stones most often lead:

    • inadequate rate of urine formation in the kidneys;
    • lack of motor activity;
    • high concentration of salts in urine;
    • the predominance of dairy and plant foods in the diet;
    • use of substances that promote the increase in the concentration of calcium in the urine - it's coffee, cocoa, chocolate and strong teas;
    • systemic pathologies in the body;
    • lesions of the endocrine system;
    • deficiency of vitamins A, E, D.

    Symptoms of formation of renal phosphates and their diagnosis

    Symptoms of formation of phosphates in the kidneys almost does not differ from other types of stones. The only distinguishing feature is the asymptomatic course, and at times the manifestation of the symptomatology of the active form of pyelonephritis masking the underlying lesion.

    Sometimes the disease begins to manifest itself as a typical symptom of urolithiasis and attacks of renal colic:

    1. incessant aching pain in the lumbar region - when transformed into coral stones;
    2. attacks of renal colic - acute, unexpected pain in the lumbar region with irradiation in the abdomen, genitalia, inguinal region and the inner thighs;
    3. increased body temperature, frequent urination, urinary tract disorders - burning, pain, etc.;
    4. yield along with urine stones;
    5. presence of blood in the urine.

    It is impossible to identify the diagnosis of the presence of phosphates by some signs, therefore the following tests and examinations should be organized:

    • Urinalysis with examination of its sediment - signs of inflammation, presence of phosphoric acid salts, alkaline acidity.
    • Ultrasound examination.
    • X-ray examination.
    • Functional tests for the kidneys - to identify kidney failure.
    • Blood tests.

    Principles of organization of treatment

    Phosphates are characterized by features that greatly aggravate the course of pathology, as well as facilitation factors:

    1. The fragile structure of education - this allows to successfully destroy them due to lithotripsy.
    2. Phosphates are perfectly soluble - they can be dissolved by changing the acidity in the urine in the acidic side.

    All methods of treatment organization can be classified into two groups - conservative and surgical.

    Conservative therapy includes:

    • Special diet.
    • Treatment of inflammation in the urinary canals.
    • Drugs that change the acidity of urine.
    • Mineral water.

    The operative methods of treatment include:

    • Remote or contact lithotripsy of stones.
    • Classical operation, used for urolithiasis.

    If phosphate stones are formed in the kidneys: the diet very often helps the process of dissolution of these stones. It should be acidified urine, so the following foods are recommended: fish, meat, legumes and grains, some vegetables, pumpkin, cranberries, sour apples, cowberries.

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