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Hormones of the kidneys: how and why they affect the human body

  • Hormones of the kidneys: how and why they affect the human body

    Doctors often associate kidney damage and swelling with various disorders of the balance of hormones in the body. They do not have a special endocrine tissue, but despite this, some cells are able to synthesize and produce biologically active substances, which are called kidney hormones.

    They have all the signs of ordinary hormones.

    Influence and interrelation of kidneys and hormones

    The endocrine system and the kidneys are related to each other. It is there that the synthesis of certain hormones - renin, vitamin D3.For some types of hormones, the kidneys become a so-called target organ, and many are simply processed and output by them.

    This complexity of processes in the kidneys and explains the hormonal disorders that develop in chronic failure of this organ.

    The action of the major hormones of the kidneys - renin, prostaglandins and erythropoietin is very different:

    1. Renin. The volume of water in the human body correlates with the concentration of salts in it. Each of the salt molecules is associated with a specific number of water molecules. With profuse sweating, a person loses a lot of salts and water, and with their lack of blood flow decreases, blood pressure also decreases, so the heart is unable to supply blood to all organs. With a decrease in blood pressure, the intake of renin into the blood rises, and in turn, it activates the action of protein substances that cause the narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels and increase of blood pressure. In addition, such substances activate the production of adrenal glands by the aldosterone, which enters the blood. Blood, saturated with aldosterone, reduces the production of salts and water by the kidneys.
    2. Erythropoietin. This hormone affects the production of red blood cells. Everyone knows that red blood cells supply the body with oxygen. The volume of erythropoietin correlates with the concentration of oxygen in the bloodstream - as the concentration decreases, the volume of erythropoietin increases. The hormone is responsible for stimulating the transformation of bone marrow cells into erythrocytes.
    3. Prostaglandins. The action of these hormones is not fully understood. Prostaglandins are physiologically active substances that are formed in the tissues of humans and most animals. Prostaglandins can have different physiological effects: they provoke a contraction of smooth muscles, change blood pressure, endocrine glands, affect the water-salt balance, etc.

    Causes of disruption in the production of hormones

    With the development of certain pathologies, a violation of the production of hormones by the kidneys begins. Depending on the disease, they produce insufficient or excessive amounts. Usually this happens when their lesions are serious.

    This is important! With active sports, along with sweat, a person loses a lot of water and salts. In order to compensate for the loss, a copious drink with a high concentration of salts is required-mineral water or an isotonic drink that allows the kidneys to resume their normal salt balance.

    Dysfunction of hormone production in renal failure

    Hormonal abnormalities associated with kidney loss of their functions are very complex and diverse.

    There are four mechanisms of disturbance of the hormonal balance in their chronic deficiency:

    1. The deterioration in the production of hormones, which are synthesized by the kidneys, provoked by a decrease in the parenchyma. Thus, renal anemia correlates with poor synthesis of erythropoietin by the kidneys. And osteomalacia and hypocalcemia are the result of a deterioration in the production of active vitamin D3.
    2. Impairment of the effectiveness of hormones in patients with kidney failure due to loss of parenchyma - the place of their impact. For example, the sodium-retarding effect of aldosterone deteriorates, provoking a restriction of sodium stores and the formation of a salt-losing syndrome.
    3. Kidney loss in the excretory function increases the half-life of hormones and reduces the rate of their clearance. This can lead to the development of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.
    4. Toxins produced by uremia and other complex changes can alter the effect of hormones.

    It turns out that with the development of chronic kidney failure, all mechanisms of endocrine abnormalities begin to function.

    Complex bone disorders are an example of the complex impact of vitamin D3 deficiency.

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