Colitis of the intestine: symptoms, treatment and causes of colitis

  • Colitis of the intestine: symptoms, treatment and causes of colitis

    Colitis of the intestine is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine.

    This disease is quite common among those who have any problems with the digestive system. Symptoms of colitis are multifaceted, but not specific, which is why it is often confused with other diseases of the large intestine.

    For an accurate diagnosis, a specialist should be consulted, as well as instrumental and laboratory diagnostic methods. There are several forms of colitis and at least five of its types depending on the etiology of the disease.

    Causes of intestinal colitis

    There are quite a number of reasons that can provoke the development of the inflammatory process in the mucosa of the large intestine.

    1. 1) So, the most common cause of colitis is an infection that can be caused by a number of pathogens, for example: streptococci, staphylococcus, salmonella, cholera vibrio, etc.
    2. 2) The next reason for the development of colitis is the frequent use of antibiotics. Many people take antibiotics without prescribing a doctor in the hope of curing, for example, a cold as quickly as possible, without realizing that there are a lot of her pathogens. Consequently, antibiotics that worked in a past cold may not work in the current. Such useless medications, especially without maintenance therapy, become the real cause of colitis development.

    3. 3) In some cases, irregular diet, alcohol abuse and persistent stress provoke the appearance of inflammation of the large intestine.
    4. 4) Separately, it is necessary to distinguish the harmful effect of toxic substances and poisons on the human body, which can lead not only to intestinal colitis, but also to a variety of other diseases. In the risk zone, where there is a high probability that a person will be affected by poisons and toxins, there are workers in hazardous industries.
    5. 5) Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( GIT), such as diarrhea, constipation and circulatory disorders, can also affect the development of colitis.
    Some experts separately distinguish colitis of unclear etiology, when the causes of its occurrence can not be determined accurately. Sometimes colitis of unclear etiology is associated with an individual's allergic reaction to a certain food allergen, as well as heredity and the presence of autoimmune diseases. Colitis of unclear etiology is called ulcerative.

    Therefore, given the above-described causes of colitis bowel disease, it can be classified as follows:

    • colitis is infectious;
    • medicinal;
    • toxic;
    • ulcerative;
    • is ischemic.
    In addition, each of these types of colitis can have an acute or chronic form of the disease. Acute colitis is characterized by rapid development and brightness of manifestations. Chronic colitis develops gradually, it is lethargic, and its symptoms are not very pronounced.

    Symptoms of intestinal colitis

    Symptoms of intestinal colitis are best viewed from the point of view of its forms.

    Acute colitis is characterized by the appearance of drawing pains and spasms, a constant urge to defecate. A person can be tortured by unstable stools, that is alternating diarrhea and constipation in combination with bloating and constant rumbling.

    Often in feces can be found blood and mucus, indicating a strong inflammation, and the feces will differ malodorous odor. In addition, the patient has an increase in body temperature, weakness and fatigue. In most cases, infectious, ulcerative and toxic colitis have an acute form of flow.

    For chronic colitis, unstable stools are most common, when diarrhea becomes constipated. Typical symptoms are the severity of the abdomen, overflow, pain and false urge to defecate. In some cases, there may be nausea, a bitter taste in the mouth, headaches and dizziness.

    The chronic form is observed most often in medicinal and ischemic colitis. In addition, chronic colitis very often develops due to irregular human nutrition, alcohol abuse, and also as an after-effect of acute acute infectious colitis.

    Thus, it is possible to distinguish common for all types of colitis symptoms:

    • pain and spasms;
    • constipation or diarrhea;
    • feces with blood or mucus;
    • increased body temperature;
    • weakness, fast fatigue.

    Diagnosis of intestinal colitis

    The diagnosis of colitis begins with an anamnesis that takes into account the patient's past illnesses that can trigger the development of colitis.

    Mandatory is palpation of the abdomen, which will allow the doctor to identify the painful areas of the large intestine and the presence of bloating. An important role in the diagnosis of colitis is played by laboratory tests.

    The following tests are mandatory:

    • general blood test;
    • biochemical blood test;
    • stool analysis.
    These analyzes allow to determine both the general state of human health and specific signs of the disease, such as the presence of mucus, blood, helminth eggs in the stool( see how to treat helminthiasis), as well as signs of inflammation with the definition of pathogens.

    In addition, very often the diagnosis of colitis is carried out using instrumental examination methods that allow you to visually assess the condition of the large intestine mucosa, determine the presence and localization of the inflammatory process, and conduct a biopsy followed by a laboratory study of the material taken.

    Instrumental research methods allow to identify adhesions, polyps, ulcers, tumors of the large intestine, which is extremely important for establishing the correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

    To instrumental diagnostic methods include:

    • endoscopy;
    • sigmoidoscopy;
    • Irrigoscopy;
    • colonoscopy.
    A distinctive feature of these studies is the need for preliminary preparation of the patient for them.

    Treatment of intestinal colitis

    Determining the exact diagnosis directly affects the success of treatment. Treatment of colitis of the intestine depends on the localization of the inflammatory process, on the type and form of colitis, from concomitant diseases. In any case, it is necessary first of all to eliminate the cause of the disease, and in the future to conduct therapy aimed at maintaining and restoring human health.

    1. 1) In the case of infectious colitis, antibacterial therapy is used. Antibiotics are prescribed only after sowing on the definition of pathogens of the disease and their sensitivity to antibacterial drugs. Together with antibiotics, usually prescribed drugs that support the intestinal microflora.
    2. 2) When poisoning leads to toxic or chronic colitis, it makes sense to use intestinal adsorbents and drugs that clean the intestinal dysbacteriosis. Adsorbing drugs are able to bind and eliminate the negative effects of toxins. Treatment of chronic colitis should be comprehensive, which means taking painkillers, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhea drugs, as well as drugs that prevent and treat gastrointestinal disorders.
    3. 3) Ulcerative colitis( see ulcerative colitis), the causes of which are individual for each case of the disease, are treated depending on the causative factor. In the event that the occurrence of ulcerative colitis is associated with heredity, then symptomatic therapy is necessary.
    An important role in the treatment of colitis of the intestines is played by diet. Thus, the patient is shown a diet number 4, which implies the rejection of fatty, fried, too salty or spicy food. The diet allows not to overload the gastrointestinal tract and not to provoke the further development of inflammation. Of course, at the time of treatment it is worth not to take alcohol in any quantities.

    Surgical treatment of colitis is used in rare cases of ulcerative colitis, and also in the case of ischemic colitis in the formation of thrombi in the branches of the abdominal aorta followed by embolism.

    Possible consequences of

    Complications of colitis in most cases arise from the absence of treatment or the administration of abnormal therapy.

    These complications include:

    • intoxication of the body.
    • dehydration of the body.
    • appearance of blood loss and, as a consequence, the development of anemia.
    • increased risk of developing cancer.
    • occurrence of headaches and dizziness.
    • appearance of a dysbacteriosis.
    • formation of adhesions and scars, which often lead to intestinal obstruction.
    • perforation of the intestinal wall with the further development of peritonitis.
    All of the above complications can be avoided if the diagnosis is carried out in time to make the correct diagnosis, and to prescribe an effective treatment. In addition, it is very important to adhere to a special diet, so as not to reduce the effect of all medical actions to zero. At treatment the forecast of a colitis of an intestine in most cases favorable.

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