• Types of hyperglycemia, its causes, treatment and therapy

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    Hyperglycemia is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, which is characterized by a glucose level in the blood above the norm( 3,3 - 5,5 mmol / l) and the appearance of a number of symptoms. This condition develops with the pathology of many organs, but is especially common in diabetes mellitus.

    What are the types of hyperglycemia?

    By severity, hyperglycemia can be divided into the following types:

    • mild hyperglycemia( at a glucose level of 6-10 mmol / l),
    • average hyperglycemia( at a glucose level of 10-16 mmol / l),
    • severe hyperglycemia( at a glucose level of more than 16mmol / l).

    Severe hyperglycemia includes two such conditions, such as precoma, when the glucose level is 16.5 mmol / L and higher, as well as hyperosmolar coma with a glucose level above 55.5 mmol / l.

    Hyperglycemia is temporary, which can occur in healthy people after eating, and a constant that develops in diabetes mellitus.

    In turn, hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus can be of two types:

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    1. Fasting hyperglycemia is a condition that develops if a person does not eat for eight hours or more( the glucose level rises to 7.2 mmol / l).
    2. Post-prandial hyperglycemia, which occurs after eating( the serum glucose level will then be about 10 mmol / L and above).

    Causes that may lead to the onset of

    The most important cause of increased blood glucose levels is the inadequate production of the insulin hormone that develops in the pathology of the pancreas and in particular with diabetes. In this case, the permeability of the cell walls for glucose rises, which causes an increase in the level of sugar in the blood. But there are cases when insulin is enough, but the sensitivity of peripheral cells to it is reduced, due to this and develops hyperglycemia.

    The cause of temporary hyperglycemia is a violation of a diet with excessive consumption of carbohydrates, the cleavage of which leads to a jump in blood sugar.

    Hyperglycemia can develop under the influence of certain drugs: β-blockers, thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, protease inhibitors, certain antidepressants.

    The cause of hyperglycemia can be stress, a chronic infectious disease, an inflammatory process, since under these conditions there is an ejection of catecholamines, which are counterinsulant hormones.

    In people with diabetes, the cause of hyperglycemia may be a situation where an insulin injection or a sugar-lowering drug was missed.

    The main clinical manifestations of the disease

    To describe the clinical manifestations of hyperglycemia, there is a hyperglycemic triad that includes the following symptoms:

    • polydipsia( thirst),
    • polyuria( frequent urination),
    • weight loss.

    In addition to these three symptoms, hyperglycemia can be manifested by fatigue, blurred vision, dry mouth, dry or itchy skin, Kussmaul breathing, arrhythmias. In severe cases, coma may occur.

    If the state of hyperglycemia develops sharply, it manifests itself by the fall of AD, ketoacidosis, loss of consciousness, dehydration. Ketoacidosis occurs due to the fact that the fats are split into ketone bodies. This mechanism is triggered by the fact that the amount of sugars in the body is large, and insulin is not produced enough, as a result, cells receive insufficient amounts of glucose.

    In response, the cleavage of glycogen, which further increases the level of glucose. In this case, insulin remains at the same level. In this regard, the process of splitting fats with the formation of ketone bodies, which enters the blood, lead to a violation of acid balance. Ketoacidosis in turn can lead to the development of such a formidable complication of hyperglycemia, such as ketoacidotic coma and death.

    The main directions in the treatment of hyperglycemia

    To correct hyperglycemia, you need to use a treatment regimen for the disease that causes it( eg, diabetes mellitus).If this is a temporary rise in blood glucose, then the treatment of hyperglycemia is carried out according to the scheme of emergency therapy with the appointment of massive detoxification therapy, the infusion of insulin, vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins.

    These measures will help balance the acid-base balance and prevent the development of ketoacidotic coma. In order to prevent hyperglycemia, it is necessary to monitor the blood sugar level, measure it several times during the day and necessarily on an empty stomach after eating.

    It is obligatory to consume a lot of liquid, and when ketoacidosis develop, drink soda water, in order to reduce the acidity of the blood. Observe a diet with a restriction of carbohydrates. And patients with diabetes constantly adjust the dose of insulin or hypoglycemic drugs.

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