Symptoms of diabetes mellitus in women of various ages
Diabetes mellitus is a dangerous disease characterized not only by impaired glucose metabolism in the body, but also by damage to capillaries and vessels that lose the ability to function normally. The main causes of diabetes mellitus in women are associated with overweight, malnutrition, consumption of large amounts of sugar, smoking and frequent drinking alcohol.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by damage to the hormone-producing cells of the pancreatic Langerhans islets, where the hormone insulin is produced, responsible for the assimilation of glucose by cells. With its lack of blood, there is an accumulation of excess glucose concentrations, which becomes a kind of toxin for a person, leading to irritation of blood vessels, increased blood viscosity, a violation of the metabolism of other substances.
However, the greatest danger with diabetes of any type is the lack of oxygen in the tissues of the body, which can lead to a diabetic coma( type 1), the death of cells with their purulent infection( gangrene, trophic ulcers) requiring amputation of the whole limb. A frequent complication of this disease in women is neuropathy with a loss of sensitivity of the skin.
Type 2 diabetes in women occurs due to impaired glucose uptake by cells, which may be a sign of fat cell deposition on the surface of specific receptors responsible for delivering glucose from the blood to the interior of the cell, as well as lack of nutrition. There is also a theory about the hereditary genetic predisposition of the representatives of the fair half to this disease.
Gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women occurs due to the formation in the blood of a large number of toxic substances due to toxicosis, which damage the islets of Langerhans pancreas.
Principles of WHO Classification of the Disease:
A. Classes for Clinical Diabetes Mellitus:
- Non-insulin dependent in case of overweight,
- Non-insulin-dependent in case of malnutrition,
- Other types of diabetes mellitus with pancreatic diseases, hormonal system, genetic syndromes, drug exposure, the use of toxic substances,
B. Risk classes for diabetes mellitus, but with a normal level of glucose in the blood. They have an empty stomach glucose level does not exceed normal values, but when using fast-digested carbohydrates, it exceeds the norm.
Initial signs of the disease in women
Classic first signs of this disease in women, allowing timely access to a doctor:
- Itching of the palms and feet. It occurs in 80% of women with diabetes. It arises due to skin irritation with an increased amount of glucose in the blood,
- Breaking and hair loss. Slow growth, brittleness and hair loss due to a violation of the metabolism of substances in the body,
- Permanent drowsiness. Cells of the brain lack glucose, which leads to permanent drowsiness,
- Prolonged flow of various infectious diseases.
All signs of diabetes in women can be divided into:
- Primary - develop rapidly, and the woman can fairly accurately indicate the time of onset of the symptom,
- Secondary - form a long time, and often remain unnoticed by the patient due to their low specificity.
Classical signs of diabetes mellitus in gestational women:
- Increasing urination,
- Weight gain,
- Lack of appetite.
When you see a doctor, women with classic type 1 diabetes usually complain of thirst, dry mouth, increased appetite, weakness, polyuria. Frequent accompanying signs of the disease manifest themselves in the form of spasms of gastrocnemius muscles, pain in the heart, sleep disorders, increased irritability.
All symptoms of diabetes in women of different ages
Classical symptoms of this disease in women with primary signs:
- Podidipsia - unquenchable thirst,
- Polyuria - urinary acceleration,
- Polyphagia - a feeling of constantly hunger that can not be quenched even with too high-calorie food,
- Acetone-like sharp smell,
Clinical symptoms of diabetes in women with secondary symptoms:
- Visual impairment - fuzzy imagesin the form of "veils before the eyes",
- Increased fatigue,
- Increased dryness of vaginal mucosa,
- Cramps in calf muscles, tingling and numbness in hands and feet,
- Decreased regenerationionic ability of tissues - the appearance of abscesses and wounds,
- Decrease in body temperature below 35 degrees,
- Facial hair growth and loss of legs,
- Yellowish growths( xanthomas) on the body,
- Inflammatory changes and dysbacteriosis of the vagina.
Symptoms of the disease in women allow you to determine the severity of the disease:
- Light degree - There is no smell of acetone from the mouth. When examining the fundus, an ophthalmologist can detect retinopathy of the 1 degree. The level of glucose in the blood does not exceed 8 mmol / l.
- Average degree - glucose level less than 12 mmol / l. There is ketoacidosis.
- Severe degree of diabetes mellitus - The concentration of glucose in the blood exceeds 12 mmol / l, retinopathy III-IV degree, impaired renal function.
In conclusion, we note that diabetes is a serious disease, which is necessary to diagnose in the early stages. This significantly affects the success of treatment and the prevention of serious complications.