What is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and how to cope with it?
Diabetes mellitus with absolute deficiency of insulin in the blood is called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Absence of insulin in the blood without the possibility of its replenishment can lead to other serious diseases. The very name of the disease speaks about the constant need of an organism that has undergone a disease in insulin.
There are two types of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus:
- Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent
There are several differences between the two types of this disease.
Type 1 diabetes
Occurs with various diseases that lead to a decrease in the body's secretion and synthesis of insulin. Most often the disease affects teenagers, children and young people under 30 years, but there are exceptions. Symptoms of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 are thirst, increased urine formation, ketoacidotic conditions and a sharp weight loss.
Type 2 diabetes
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 2 is caused by a decrease in the sensitivity of the internal tissues of the body to the effects of insulin. The body continues to produce insulin in normal or even increased amounts and over time excessive secretion of insulin depletes or destroys pancreatic cells.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of disease from the entire percentage of diabetic patients and is 85-90% of all cases. Type 2 diabetes most often develops in people older than 40 years and develops relatively slowly. The classic symptoms of this disease are the appearance of excess fat, skin itching, muscle relaxation, dry mouth.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a hereditary disease.
Modern methods of treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
The primary goal of treatment of this type of disease is to normalize the level of glucose in the blood. The main methods of treatment are still insulinotherapy and diet therapy. But there were some additions to the treatment. It turned out that the procedures will have a greater effect if the patient himself and his relatives participate in the process.
It is the doctor's responsibility to choose the exact scheme of insulin therapy and to give the necessary recommendations to the doctor and his relatives, after which the patient, in the course of long-term treatment, must learn to correct insulin doses.
Given the individual needs of the patient, a physician should make a diet. However, the patient should be able to independently determine the necessary level of glucose in the injected insulin, which directly depends on the physiological level of insulin in the patient's blood. This is possible with frequent monitoring of glucose. Measurements should occur during the day. This will accurately adjust the necessary doses of insulin.
Another effective treatment tactic is intensive insulin therapy. It is aimed at maintaining a normal concentration of glucose in the blood.
When choosing this tactic, you must follow 10 rules:
- The desired level of glucose after meals and on an empty stomach is planned and maintained.
- It is necessary to simulate as physically as possible the physiological fluctuations in the amount of insulin in the blood.
- It is necessary to maintain a balance between the supply of physical activity and the intake of insulin doses.
- Permanent self-monitoring of blood glucose level is mandatory.
- An independent correction of the insulin intake scheme is necessary depending on the current lifestyle and the amount of glucose in the blood.
- There should be continuous training of patients with a doctor.
- Constant contact of the patient with a doctor and with a diabetic team.
- Discipline and motivation of the patient.
- The patient needs constant psychological support, especially at the first stage.
Diet for this disease
There are several diets with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, but there are also the basic principles by which these diets are built.
- Food in small portions, but often and regularly, at least 4-5 times a day.
- For tomorrow, lunch and dinner prescribed food is the same in terms of carbohydrates, protein and fat, as well as their caloric value.
- When dieting, avoid eating foods that contain sugar.
- So, how very hard it is without sugar, then it is replaced with xylitol, sorbitol or saccharin.
- Diabetes patients of the second type and obese should diversify their diet with a large number of vegetables, for example, cucumbers, tomatoes, spinach, salad and sauerkraut.
- To improve liver function, you should limit the use of fried foods, fish and meat broths and poultry dishes. The best option is to increase consumption in the diet of soy, cottage cheese and oatmeal.
You can make an approximate one-day menu based on all diets:
- Wheat bread - 150 grams per day.
- Rye bread - 250 grams a day.
- Soups and broths meat or fish - 1 -2 times a week.
- Dishes of meat, poultry or fish, in boiled or jellied form - up to 150 grams per day.
- Chicken eggs - no more than 2 pieces per day.
- Fruits - up to 200 grams per day.
- Liquid fermented milk products - 1-2 glasses a day.
- Solid fermented milk - 50-200 grams per day.
- Drinks( tea, coffee, juices) - up to 5 glasses a day.
- Butter and vegetable oil - up to 40 grams per day.
For the most part, the diet menu is made individually, in consultation with the attending physician, it is the doctor, based on the patient's illness data, who can make a correct and precise menu, which is highly discouraged.
Special attention should be paid to psychological support from relatives and relatives. It should be understood that the treatment of this disease will occur throughout the rest of life. And complications, especially at the initial stage, in self-control and limiting oneself to those products and lifestyle to which the patient is accustomed, arise practically at all.
On how the patient will cope with his illness, his further condition will depend.