What if you have high blood sugar?
The whirlwind of everyday duties and worries picks up a person as soon as he opens his eyes in the morning and does not let go until the deep evening, and sometimes even in a dream not hide from this fuss. Home - work - family - home. The circle has closed - and there is absolutely no room for itself. Therefore, the appearance of a serious illness becomes an unpleasant and unexpected surprise for many people.
Believe me, there is no such thing that the disease has appeared on an equal place, its symptoms are manifested for a long time, but who pays attention to some weakness, fast fatigue, weight loss? Everything is written off to stress and ecology, although the cause of this state is completely different.
Sweet blood - is it good?
One of the terrible precursors of impending health problems is elevated blood sugar, but this is not the first symptom of the disease. Everything begins on a routine basis, a person quickly becomes tired, he is persecuted by constant weakness, thirst, frequent urination, increased appetite, he quickly and steadily loses weight. In addition, in many patients the first symptoms of elevated blood sugar are the appearance on the skin of pustular rashes and itching. Sometimes the patient is treated with complaints about visual impairment, sensitivity disorder, seizures to the hospital.
Patients are first examined by a family doctor who usually assigns a specific list of studies: a general blood test, a general urinalysis, and people over 40 years of age are required to examine the level of glucose in the blood. All of the above tests are done on an empty stomach. It takes several hours - and the tests are ready, and with them the diagnosis is almost ready.
High figures of sugar in the blood indicate a rather complicated disease - diabetes, which remains with a person for life. But which exactly figures of sugar are considered high? The physiological norm of sugar in human blood is 4.4 - 6.6 mmol / l, and if the level of glucose was studied, then the norms of the norm are even lower - 3,3 - 5,5 mmol / l. In addition to increasing the level of sugar in the blood, the development of diabetes mellitus is indicated by the presence of glucose in the urine, because a healthy person should not be there at all.
Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is not made based on a single blood or urine test. Next, a glucose tolerance test is performed, the level of glycosylated hemoglobin is examined, and the pancreas is examined. The results of the tests are compared with signs of elevated blood sugar and only then the final diagnosis is made and treatment is prescribed.
Love for sweets - a direct road to diabetes?
The statement that excessive sweating with sweets not only spoils the teeth, but causes diabetes, is not entirely true. The main causes that cause diabetes are as follows:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Autoimmune reactions.
- Physical and mental injuries.
- Disturbance of blood supply to the pancreas.
As you can see, there is no love for sweets in this list. It should be understood that the cause of elevated blood sugar is a disruption of the pancreas or insulin resistance of cells to insulin. Depending on the cause, diabetes mellitus is of two types:
- Type I diabetes or insulin-dependent. It occurs when there are not enough cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, or there are many cells, but they work half-heartedly.
- Type II diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. This disease, in which insulin in the body is enough, but it can not enter the cells.
Having determined the type of hyperglycemia, it is possible to prescribe a treatment, which for these two types of diabetes will be completely different.
"But what about the sweet? Can you eat it as much as you want, or better limit it? "- you ask. There is a possibility that if you consume a large amount of glucose, there may be a depletion of cells that produce insulin, and the sugar level will be high unacceptably long. And this in turn will lead to the appearance of anaerobic decomposition products of glucose, which will further exacerbate the plight of the islets of Langerhans. So sweet yet you should not abuse.
Target organs of the "sweet killer"
Most of all, a high level of blood sugar hits the eyes, kidneys and limbs. These organs suffer from the damage to the vessels that feed them. Due to insufficient blood supply, as well as constant intoxication with products of anaerobic glycolysis, the patient may experience retinal detachment, optic nerve atrophy, glaucoma and in the end complete blindness.
Kidneys are the main excretory organs of the human body. It is with their help that the excess of glucose and the products of its decay from the blood are removed. But in the end - the end of the kidney vessels are injured, the integrity of the intima of the capillaries is broken, and the kidney performs its functions worse every day. In the advanced stage with urine, proteins, erythrocytes and other uniform elements of blood are also secreted - this is how the kidney failure develops.
The poor condition of the blood capillaries is reflected in the state of the limbs - inflammatory processes, pustules, and then gangrene.
Reducing the level of sugar
The main treatment for diabetes is the reduction of blood sugar. Depending on the type of disease, appropriate treatment is prescribed.
In type I diabetes, one treatment is insulin replacement therapy and diet compliance. Insulin is prescribed for life in the form of subcutaneous injections. There are many insulin preparations and each patient is selected strictly individually.
In type II diabetes, tablets are prescribed that reduce blood sugar.
In addition to medicines, a significant effect on health is the treatment of increasing blood sugar by diet. The ratio of B: F: F should be as follows: 1 : 1.5: 2.Patients should limit the use of carbohydrates, especially simple( fruit, sweets, honey).To facilitate pancreatic work, try eating low-fat dairy products, meat with a minimum of fat, more vegetables and cereals.