Vegeto-vascular dystonia in adults and children
Mar 25, 2018
Vegeto-vascular dystonia( VSD), or neurocirculatory dysfunction, is a pathological condition of the autonomic nervous system, which results in insufficient supply of organs and tissues with oxygen.
According to physicians, about 80% of people of all ages face this or that sign of the VSD.
Vegeto-vascular dystonia: symptoms and signs ^
The autonomic nervous system located in the spinal cord and the brain is the most important part of the human body - it fully coordinates the activity of all internal organs, vessels and endocrine glands and ensures their adaptation to changesof the external environment.
In particular, the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, heart contractions, body temperature, the composition and volume of the intercellular fluid, blood flow, metabolic processes, thirst, hunger and satiety, sweat gland function, kidney function, muscle tone of the internal organs, circadian) rhythms and much more.
For vegetative vascular dystonia, which is a consequence of vascular tone disruption, the following symptoms are typical:
- psychoneurological symptoms of VSD - weakness, lethargy, fatigue, low working capacity, dizziness, headaches, sleep disorders, fainting, decreased sexual activity, panic attacks;
- thermoregulatory symptoms of VSD associated with impaired sweating and thermoregulation - spontaneous increase in body temperature, excessive sweating, fever, hot flashes, or, conversely, chilliness of the limbs;
- vascular - instability of arterial and venous pressure;
- cardiac - irregularities in the heart, rapid heartbeat and pain in the heart;
- respiratory( respiratory) - shortness of breath, heaviness in the chest and a sense of lack of air;
- dyspepsia symptoms of VSD - a breakdown in the work of the gastrointestinal tract( constipation, diarrhea), urination disorders and dyskinesia of the gallbladder.
Vegeto-vascular dystonia: types and causes ^
Despite the fact that there is no unified classification of VSD, it is common to divide the following types of vegetative-vascular dystonia:
By the nature of the course, the vegetative-vasculardystonia is classified into the following forms:
- permanent form of the AVR - flows without sudden jumps in the patient's condition;
- paroxysmal, or paroxysmal - manifests itself in the form of attacks( crises or panic attacks), in intervals between attacks, manifestations of the disease are almost invisible;
- mixed VSD( permanent-paroxysmal) - combines the signs of permanent and paroxysmal forms;
- latent, or latent form - in this type of AVI the disease can not manifest itself in any way for quite a long time, until the appearance of provoking factors( stress, illness, overfatigue).
Depending on cardiovascular system disorders :
- hypertensive type, or vegetative - vascular dystonia hypertonic type. It is accompanied by a significant increase in blood pressure( 145/90 - 175/95 mm Hg), sometimes with rapid heart rate, sudden arousal, chills, symptoms of panic attack;and, the pressure can increase not only during periods of emotional stress, but also in a state of complete rest;
- hypotensive type, or vegetative - vascular dystonia hypotonic type. In this case, the blood pressure is significantly lower than normal and reaches 100/50 and even 90/45 mm Hg. Art.and is accompanied by lethargy, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, fast fatigue of the patient, sometimes fainting;
- normotensive, or cardiac( cardiac) type does not depend on blood pressure, but is determined by heart rate disorders( delayed heart rhythm or, on the contrary, rapid, fading and heart failure), and pain in the thoracic region;
- mixed type VSD combines several symptoms and signs, characteristic for different types.
Depending on the cause of of vegetative vascular dystonia, the following types of VSD are distinguished:
- is hereditary,
- is infectious allergic,
- is post traumatic,
- is psychogenic( as a reaction of the body to stress or psychotraumatic situation),
- and also resulting from excessive emotional or physicalovervoltage.
Vegeto-vascular dystonia: treatment and diagnosis ^
The success of further treatment largely depends on the timely and correct diagnosis of VSD.If you have the following symptoms:
- frequent paroxysmal headaches,
- increased fatigue,
- causeless anxiety,
- blood pressure and heart rate jumps,
- "com" in the throat,
- pain in the heart and abdomen,
- and also cold or numb the limbs.
are all possible symptoms of vegetative vascular dystonia, requiring immediate medical attention.
You do not need to listen to harmful advice from friends and acquaintances like "VSD is not a disease and will go away without treatment."Doctors say that untreated dystonia is very dangerous, as it can be complicated by panic attacks and other serious disorders that occur through an erroneous command of the autonomic nervous system and drain the nervous system.
In panic attacks( sympathoadrenal crisis), a person suddenly begins to tremble( most often in a crowded place), choke and become covered with a cold sweat. At the same time, he has a wild fear of death, his heart is beating wildly and pressure is jumping.
VSD in adolescents
Special attention of parents and doctors requires vegeto-vascular dystonia in children and adolescents. The first symptoms of the disease are noticeable, usually from early childhood - these children often get sick, conflict, capricious, do not tolerate any loads( physical, intellectual, emotional) and are prone to sudden mood swings.
Symptoms of an AVR in adolescents also can not be attributed to a transient age and to wait for them to pass by themselves.
- If a teenager is emotionally unstable,
- is sweating profusely,
- easily fades or turns red,
- experiences hot flushes and pressure jumps
- according to doctors, it is nothing but signs of vegetative dystonia, therefore urgent measures are needed to level its manifestations.
Diagnosis of vegetative - vascular dystonia
To correctly diagnose the VSD, it is necessary to exclude somatic( organic) diseases that give similar symptoms.
- For example, to exclude thyroid disease( hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism), ultrasound is performed on the thyroid gland and gives blood to its hormonal activity.
- Sometimes it is necessary to make an electrocardiogram( ECG), an MRI( magnetic resonance imaging), a vascular dopplerography( ultrasound of cerebral vessels), an oculist and an endocrinologist.
- And only after the elimination of somatic diseases and full confirmation of the diagnosis of VSD, the doctor can prescribe an individual treatment.
- Treatment VSD should be carried out in a complex and in close interaction of the patient with a neurologist, therapist, endocrinologist, oculist, psychiatrist, sometimes with a gynecologist.
If treatment is started on time, at the earliest stages of the disease, then the prognosis is very favorable and often it is possible to do without the use of medications. According to physicians, despite the wide prevalence of VSD, in professional treatment no more than 1/3 patients need.
Treatment of vegetative - vascular dystonia should begin with the organization of the right day regimen and complex of restorative measures, giving, with their regular application, an excellent curative and healing effect:
- The duration of a continuous night sleep should be at least 8 - 9 hours,, if possible, a few hours in the afternoon.
- Physical activity should be regular and moderate, up to a feeling of easy fatigue, especially at high blood pressure( above 140/90 mmHg).Useful swimming, cycling, easy running( except jumping), walking, aerobics, skiing.
- Massage of the head, collar zone and back, in the absence of contraindications and after consulting with the doctor, gives a good therapeutic effect. Applicators can be used additionally for massage( Lyapko, Kuznetsova).
- Very useful daily contrast shower and stay under the sunlight( phototherapy).
Diet for vegetative-vascular dystonia
- The nutrition in case of an AVR should be balanced and contain physiologically necessary amounts of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and trace elements, especially in the diet potassium and magnesium.
- Potassium is found in tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, green peas, beets, eggplants, beans, sorrel, dill, rhubarb, apricots, prunes, figs, raisins.
- Nuts, beans, soybeans, carrots, dogrose and whole grains of porridge( buckwheat, oatmeal, wheat) can become sources of magnesium.
- You should exclude salted, sharp, smoked dishes, strong tea, coffee, chocolate, and replace animal fats with vegetable fats.
If the normalization of diet and nutrition does not give the desired effect, there are many modern effective drugs in the arsenal of physicians:
- antihypertensives( lowering pressure),
- beta blockers( with tachycardia),
- neuroprotectors( cerebral metabolism activators),
- antioxidants( protect cells fromoxidation and destruction),
- preparations for improving blood circulation,
- tranquilizers( possessing sedative, i.e., soothing action),
- antidepressants, which help to relieve depression and anxiety.
Homeopathic treatment and prophylaxis ^
Treatment of vegetative vascular dystonia with folk remedies can be a good addition to drug therapy, but should be prescribed, like medication, by your doctor:
- The sedative effect of hawthorn, motherwort, oregano, valerian,peony, red viburnum, mint, hops, lemon balm, needles - they are good for use in the hypertensive type in the form of teas, decoctions and baths.
- In the hypotonic type and in the absence of insomnia, it is possible to use toning plants that increase pressure and performance - eleuterococcus, ginseng, Chinese magnolia vine.
- With lowered arterial pressure, pearl and aromatic baths, circular and contrast showers are useful.
In addition, the patient VSD should learn to relax properly - doctors recommend to master the technique of diaphragmatic breathing, which well relieves internal tension and improves blood flow to the heart and lungs.
- It is necessary to breathe superficially - at the expense of "fold", inhale deeply, sticking out your chest, and at the expense of "two to three" breathe deeply, drawing your stomach.
- A good relaxing effect is provided by special gymnastics, which allows you to relax first consistently, and then both the muscles of the face, neck, shoulder girdle and back.
If the causes of dystonia are psychological disorders( stress, depression, chronic fatigue, neurosis, fatigue), except for medications, it is advisable to visit a professional psychotherapist who, with the help of techniques such as hypnotherapy or behavioral therapy, can help get rid of fears, panic attacks andphobias and provide the necessary psychological help.