• What is type 1 diabetes and how to cope with it?

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    The endocrine system in the human body plays an important role, regulating with the help of hormones all biochemical processes. One such process is the transformation of the food we eat into energy and heat. Heat and energy is provided by glucose, which undergoes a series of changes and turns into glycogen.

    For these processes, the hormone insulin, produced in the pancreas by the cells of Langerhans, is responsible. Only with the help of the insulin hormone glycogen enters the cell, providing an influx of energy. With insufficient production of insulin cells, the amount of sugar in the blood rises and there is a type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Why does type 1 diabetes occur?

    Exchange processes that pass continuously in the body, provide him with movement, intelligence, digestion of food and so on. All food entering the body is divided into three types:

    • Carbohydrates - in the body are split into sugars( glucose).
    • Fats - are split into fatty acids.
    • Proteins - break down into amino acids.
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    In addition, the body receives minerals, vitamins and enzymes, which also participate in the metabolism. Carbohydrates are the easiest and fastest source of energy. Between meals, glycogen accumulates in the liver, in which a depot is created, capable of providing all tissues with energy for a whole day. From the depot, glycogen is consumed, if food does not arrive, and its stocks are constantly replenished.

    Diabetes mellitus 1 is characterized by the fact that the affected cells of Langerhans do not produce enough insulin, which is vital for the penetration of glycogen into the cell, since only insulin can "release" a large sugar molecule into the cell.

    The causes of type 1 diabetes are not fully understood, although it is believed that autoimmune diseases play a big role in its occurrence. These include diseases of the endocrine system( pathology of the adrenal cortex and thyroid gland), systemic diseases and other pathology.

    The hereditary factor also plays a role in the onset of the disease. This means that the presence of parents or relatives in a direct line, suffering from diabetes, creates a high degree of risk in the occurrence of the disease.

    In the process of treatment, it is impossible to reconstruct the dead cells of Langerhans. That's why type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent, in which the hormone insulin enters the body from the outside. The widespread myth that type 1 diabetes mellitus can be cured is not confirmed in medical practice and literature. If a person falls ill with type 1 diabetes, this diagnosis will remain with him until the end of life.

    How does the disease manifest itself?

    Very rarely, this disease affects people over the age of 40, they are more often affected by children and young people. The disease begins suddenly, which is a characteristic sign and difference from type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus grow rapidly and differ in severity, that is, you can not overlook these symptoms in the patient. The starting point for the onset of type 1 diabetes may be a viral infection or exacerbation of chronic diseases, as well as a stress factor.

    Characteristic symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus:

    • Severe thirst.
    • Frequent and profuse urination.
    • A sharp feeling of hunger.
    • Itching itch.
    • Decreased body weight for no apparent reason( up to 15 kg per month).
    • Drowsiness, fatigue, memory impairment.
    • Nausea and vomiting.
    • The smell of acetone from the mouth.

    Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is based on the following laboratory tests:

    • Blood test for the amount of glucose in the blood( fasting).
    • Test for tolerance( susceptibility) to glucose. This analysis is performed to determine the function of the pancreas( sugar load).A blood test is carried out for the sugar content after a certain time after ingestion of sugar.
    • Urine analysis for the content of ketone bodies in it and the amount of sugar. Gives an indirect idea of ​​the pancreas.
    • Blood test for the amount of insulin, C-peptide and glycolized hemoglobin.

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes is simple enough, but requires certain skills. The fact is that from the outside every few hours( depending on the patient's condition), insulin should enter the body. If this does not happen, the patient can develop a formidable complication - a diabetic coma.

    That's why, in addition to the requirements for diet and insulin, all patients need to undergo a small training course, where the doctor should talk about what diabetes is and why it is necessary to inject insulin several times a day. In addition, patients are trained to serve themselves independently, making insulin injections subcutaneously.

    Insulin therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus is a substitution therapy. Its goal is to replace the missing insulin with an artificial insulin. Insulin is of two types - simple and prolonged action. Treatment of type 1 diabetes usually involves the introduction of 2 times a day of simple insulin and 1 time per day of long-acting insulin.

    It remains to highlight the last question - how to cure type 1 diabetes, that is, can one lead a normal lifestyle with such a disease? Completely the disease is not treated, but with all the necessary measures and especially with the diet, you can live with such a diagnosis for a long time and lead a habitual way of life.

    All patients need to coordinate their actions with the attending physician, who can correct the amount of insulin while dieting. In addition, it is desirable that patients daily measure their own blood sugar level with the help of special home glucometers.

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