How to determine the level of glucose in the blood and monitor it?
Typically, the medical concept of "blood glucose level" is not common among the townsfolk. People who do not suffer from diabetes in one form or another may not face this indicator, but to know how this works and how the level of glucose in the blood affects the condition of our body, everyone who cares about his health is indebted.
First of all, it should be noted that more than half of the energy expended by our body is due to the oxidation of glucose. Glucose in general plays a crucial role in the process of vital activity of our body, being the main source of energy, in contrast to proteins and fats, performing mainly construction functions. The splitting of glucose and, as a consequence, the allocation of energy necessary for the whole organism, is one of the most important processes taking place in the human body. As this process can occur in norm, and can be broken, accordingly and functioning of an organism depends on this variable value - "a level of sugar in blood".
Blood sugar level
There are certain ranges of blood glucose values that are considered benchmark for the relevant analyzes. The National Institute of Health and Clinical Studies recommends such indicators:
- 3.3-5.5 mmol / l as a normal level;
- 5.5-6.0 mmol / l as a sign of pre-diabetes;
- is 6.1 mmol / L and more as a measure of diabetes.
In children, blood glucose should be similar with a small number of abnormalities( the upper limit of the norm is usually 0.3 mmol / L lower than in adults).It is necessary to know that with age, after 60 years, the level of the norm for glucose in the blood grows to 6.38 mmol / l.
Pregnant women are also allowed deviations from these indicators, which is directly related to their physiological state, hormonal load and the restructuring of the body. Therefore, the level of 3.3 to 6.6 mmol / l is considered within the limits of the norm. However, it is worth remembering that carefully monitoring this indicator during pregnancy is an important task, since pregnancy can trigger the onset of diabetes.
Methods for determining the level of sugar
To monitor blood glucose level is necessary for everyone, even an absolutely healthy person, because timely identification of a possible problem will allow solving it until unpleasant consequences occur. The World Health Organization recommends testing every three years. If a person considers himself to be at risk for this disease( for example, overweight, relatives suffering from diabetes), then every year.
There are many ways to determine the level of sugar in the blood:
- blood sampling from the finger or from the vein;
- analysis with or without load;
- glycated hemoglobin.
There are portable devices( glyco-meters) that can detect a rise in blood glucose, but the results are worth considering preliminary, rough drafts. At the slightest deviation of indicators from the norm in one direction or another, it is necessary to make a repeated analysis in laboratory conditions.
Maintaining normal glucose level
Usually in a healthy and strong body this indicator is maintained independently. This does not mean that you need to overload it and not maintain a healthy lifestyle. The mechanism of conversion of glucose into glycogen and vice versa is the process of maintaining the blood sugar level at an acceptable level. This process allows the body to respond to low blood glucose levels or, conversely, an increased rate.
Any deviation from the norm: a decrease or increase in the level of sugar in the blood - is a violation of the holistic process of vital activity of the body.
Hyperglycemia, as a norm violation
An elevated glucose level that goes beyond the permissible 5.5 mmol / l, occurs as a reaction to food intake, especially rich in carbohydrates. A short-term high index is not dangerous for the body, however, with a consistently high level of sugar in the blood, extremely unpleasant symptoms appear. Partly because the elevated blood sugar level is one of the main signs of diabetes.
Sometimes hyperglycemia develops as a reaction to severe stress( stroke or heart attack), against the backdrop of inflammatory processes or ongoing infections.
Classic signs of elevated blood glucose levels are excessive thirst, frequent urination and weight loss. Against the background of these signs, fatigue, blurred vision, dry skin, itching, and others are also observed.
Danger of hypoglycemia
Do not think that only an elevated glucose level is a dangerous condition for a person. A person's condition, when glucose in the blood is reduced to less than 3.3 mmol / l, is dangerous for many organs, but especially the brain.
The state of pronounced weakness, dizziness, trembling in the limbs, clouding of consciousness - all these are signs of hypoglycemia. Often a person becomes excessively excitable or aggressive, fear and anxiety are observed. The usual physiological signs of hypoglycemia include abnormal heart rhythm, pallor of the skin, hunger, increased pressure. All these signs indicate that the blood glucose is below normal and the person's condition requires immediate intervention.
Three degrees of hypoglycemia are distinguished:
- is mild - in which a person is able to help himself;
- heavy - when a person realizes his condition, but can not help himself;
- hypoglycemic coma is a loss of consciousness as a result of a critically low level of glucose in the blood.