Mar 20, 2018
Features of the game and its educational value.
The aim of the game is to teach the children to compare the objects surrounding them according to the set of distinctive features, as well as their purpose. For this purpose, children are offered a special set of colorful pair pictures with an attractive and diverse content. The content of pictures meets the natural need of children to join the surrounding reality - subject, natural and social.
The game situation allows children to actively exchange their impressions and, solving the teaching task, to comprehend and realize their still small and unsystematic life experience. The fulfillment of the rules of the game and the questions of the adult, directing the examination of pictures, comparing them, create favorable conditions for systematizing and enriching the child's ideas about the world around him. Comparing pictures, children learn to distinguish familiar qualities of objects( color, shape, size), purpose, and also get acquainted with the actions of living objects. Thus, solving the problem - to choose exactly the same for each picture, children are trained to make an elementary analysis and synthesis of the distinctive features of objects, establish their identity or difference and determine what it consists of. At the same time, children learn to transmit in a coherent speech a combination of features and the quality of the objects depicted, and thus make an important step towards their description.
The game involves a small group of children, between which there is an educational communication, which is important for their rapprochement and development of mutual understanding.
Game material. Paired pictures, specially selected for content and decoration. To create a diverse set of subject paired images, you can use the following desktop-printed games: "Lotto kids", "Subject lotto", "Lotto in four languages," "Botanical lotto", etc. It is very important that the content and decoration of the pair pictures affectchildren emotionally, reminded them of what they observe in life. It is desirable to select the pictures in series, for example: clothes, toys, familiar plants( flowers, trees, vegetables, fruits), animals( birds, pets, wild animals, etc.), as well as people( children and adults, different family members).Pictures of family members are in the "Lotto in four languages."
To get paired images from a single lotto you can use not only small pictures, but also large maps, cutting them into separate subject pictures.
Given the features of the learning task of the game, it is necessary to match the same pair of pictures for comparison, an additional set of pictures with similar images that have only some distinctive features. For example, to compare a pair of pictures, where a doll is drawn in a red dress with black pigtails, you can use the picture where the doll is drawn in a blue dress with light curls. To a pair of pictures with a Christmas tree dressed up, you can choose a picture from a botanical lotto, where a spruce growing in the forest is drawn;The picture with a toy car can be compared with the image of a real machine.
For the storage and use of game material, a special box is needed, where pairs of pictures are separated from additional pictures intended for determining the differences.
Description of the game and its techniques. The game is conducted with a subgroup of children in four to six people. At the invitation of the tutor, the children who expressed a desire to play this game sit down at a common six-seat table. Each of the players who play from their seats should clearly see all the pictures. The teacher is also directly involved in the game. He also sits at the table and during the game gives an example of the implementation of game rules and the solution of the cognitive task.
The game begins with the simplest version - matching pairs of pictures with the same images( a similar option has already been found in previous games, see the game "To whom?").The tutor opens a picture box and takes out twelve pairs of pictures. He shows the children selectively a few pictures, he admires them together with the children, evoking their interest in the objects depicted, encourages the children's statements, their attempts to share their impressions. Then the adult warns the children that in the box there are many more interesting pictures with which they now all play together.
Carefully mixing all the pairs of pictures, the teacher gives them to the children. Each receives four pictures, which depicts different objects. A few pictures are taken by an adult( while a pair to one of his pictures is from one of the children).The remaining three pictures, prepared for comparison, while "remain in the box."
Having completed the distribution of pictures, the teacher suggests that the children arrange their pictures on the table, carefully examine the objects depicted on them, and then turn them over with the image down.they say: "The colorful pictures showed their backs and hid from us, we'll look for them now!" With these words, the teacher opens one of his pictures( a pair from which one of the children has it). "Let's see what's happening here"The teacher says, introducing the children into the game situation, he calls the picture depicted in the picture and briefly describes its distinctive features, for example:" This is what doll I hid, see, it has pigtails with red ribbons, on the legs - whitesocks and brown shoes, and the dress is red. Who of you hides the same doll? Look for it, find it and show it to us! »The educator puts the picture in the middle of the table, so everyone can be seen, and the children are looking for the same among their pictures. Anyone who finds the same picture, puts it next to the comparison. Children together with the tutor compare two identical pictures.
"This doll is worth it," says the tutor."And what does this do?"My doll has a red dress, but this one? My doll has pigtails with red ribbons, but this one? "
Answering the questions of the tutor, the children call the distinctive features of the object depicted in the picture and compare the objects with each other. They list the totality of the features of the depicted object and thereby justify the identity of the two pictures. A pair of pictures are deleted in the box, and the educator suggests that one of the children open one of his pictures, name the depicted object and describe its signs. The adult helps the child describe the subject with basic questions. Then the child reminds the already sounding question and suggests repeating the words: "Who hides the same picture? Look for it, find it and show it to us! "A hand-picked picture is placed for comparison in the middle of the table. Together with the tutor, all the children on his basic questions describe the pictures depicted in the pictures, establishing that they are also the same. The pictures are removed into a box, and the next child continues the game actions.
In the same way, children discover the identity of several more pair pictures. Then the tutor introduces one of specially prepared pictures with objects of the same purpose, but with different distinctive features. For example, when a pair of pictures with images of two identical toy buckets appear on the table, the teacher pushes his picture to them, which shows a large white bucket with a lid. Children easily recognize the familiar bucket that they saw in the kitchen.
"And I also have a bucket in the picture! Says the tutor."Look at him and those two buckets."Are these buckets large or small? It's true, they're both small. Is there a small bucket in my picture too? That's right, it's great. Why do you think such a large bucket is needed? And why do we need such small buckets of flowers? "And so on.
So, on the issues of the teacher, the children compare three pictures among themselves, distinguish the differences in, the external features of the objects and specify their purpose. As a result of this comparison, the educator brings the children to the conclusion that the pictures in question, though similar to each other, are not the same, together with the kids, clarifies the differences and similarities.
The first time the teacher uses three times to take pictures of similar images, alternating the comparison of the same and similar pictures. In addition to the picture with a bucket, you can use pictures with flowers and cars( toy and real).
So this game is played for the first time. When it is repeated, other pictures from the additional set are used.
Rules of the game.
1. First we need to look at the pictures received, and then turn them downside down. When you search for the corresponding picture, you need to turn each card and return it to its original position.
2. Anyone who finds a pair of the proposed picture, should show it to everyone and put it on the table next to it.
3. Each participant in the game( in turn or on call of the tutor) opens one of the received pictures, describing its distinctive features, puts it in the middle of the table and asks the others to find the same one.
Tips for the educator. It is very important that the game be held alive, emotionally and not turn into a formal and painful exercise for the kids. Playing, children learn to reason and convey in words the features of the objects depicted. With the solution of such a task, they can cope only with the active assistance of the educator, who directs questions to their attention and reasoning. That's why we need a well thought out wording of each question. They should clearly and unambiguously allocate specific signs of the subject for the children and contribute to the creation of a holistic view. At the same time, we must not forget that children play with pictures - they look for them, find, admire them and act in their imagination. Therefore, the questions should not be formal, rectilinear and instructional in nature - they may include a joke, a hint of imaginary actions, etc.
Special attention should also be paid to the preparation of didactic material. Select in advance from different manuals the necessary set of pictures, decompose them in order. When distributing pictures, make sure that each child gets different pictures, not the same ones. In the course of the game, make sure that the children turn the images over by images downwards, otherwise they will be carried away by viewing images and forget about what they need to do.
It should also take into account the increased fatigue of toddlers. And this game presents for them some difficulty. Therefore, do not allow children to play, tired;the duration of the game should not exceed 10-15 minutes.
The set of pictures should be stored in a special box, observing the constant order of arrangement of paired and additional pictures.