Bradycardia: symptoms and treatment, causes
The conductive heart system, like an electric wire, conducts an impulse to each cell.
A charge is formed in the sinus-atrial node, then it passes to the atrial gland, followed by a bundle of Giss and ends with all the Purkinje fibers, the finest filaments that contact each cell of the heart muscle.
So, in a normal way, a charge transfer takes place, which causes heart contractions with a frequency of 60 to 90 beats. Bradycardia causes conduction disturbance at the site of the conduction system of the heart.
The causes of bradycardia
What causes the development of bradycardia, and what is it?
- 1) Pathological changes that occur in the heart are able to affect the pacemaker( sinus atrial or sinoatrial node) or other nodes, as well as parts of the conductive system. Such changes can be ischemic disease, which can lead to acute myocardial infarction, heart defects( congenital or more often acquired), myocarditis( inflammation of the heart muscle), arterial hypertension and other pathologies.
- 2) The bradycardia can be reflexive and may appear as a reaction to swimming in cold water( such a reaction can cause sudden cardiac arrest).Pain syndrome, severe strokes in the chest or neck area can also slow heartbeat, there is an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system, which contributes to slowing the work of the heart, along with this, blood pressure may drop.
- 3) Uncontrolled use of drugs, such as cardiac glycosides, β-blockers or quinine.
The first option may be sinus, it is also called bradyarrhythmia, this occurs when the pacemaker is unable to perform his duties. Pulses can be generated by him with a lower frequency than necessary or, conversely, when it completely fails. Then the functions of the rhythm generator take on the other components of the conducting system. But along with this, the pulse generation frequency is also significantly reduced.
Atrioventricular blockade occurs at the site from the pacemaker( sinus atrial) to the atrial ventricular( atrioventricular) node. The impulse can pass through the atrioventricular node, but they can be delayed for a short time, which exceeds the norm, in which case a blockade of the first degree occurs.
If impulses do not pass all, then this is the second degree, with full blockade it's time to talk about the third degree.
Symptoms of bradycardia
In general, bradycardia can be divided into compensated( when the body itself is able to cope) and decompensated( the body is unable to cope) options.
With a compensated version of a special clinic may not be observed. A person can live a normal life and just do not know about the disease, only by accidentally getting to the doctor for an appointment, the correct diagnosis is revealed, it is also possible to determine the bradycardia simply by calculating your pulse.
Decompensation causes the appearance of signs, they are not specific. This option is a group of symptoms that can manifest as a deficiency in the blood supply to the brain, but this can also manifest other pathologies( eg, lowering blood pressure or hypotension, orthostatic collapse, or anemia).
There is weakness, fatigue and the true thing is only revealed when you visit a specialist and perform all tests. Bradycardia can progress, then there is dizziness, a person can lose consciousness, so there is a syndrome, which is called Morgagni-Adam-Stokes. The entire clinic may be accompanied by hypotension, and further development of the disease can cause arrhythmic shock or collapse.
Also read the symptoms and treatment of arrhythmia.
In addition to simple pulse counting, it is important to visit a doctor. A specialist can, even without listening to complaints, send a patient to the ECG, the procedure is completely painless, but carries a huge amount of diagnostic information.
But if everything starts right and produce complaints and record the electrical impulses of the heart everything will fall into place, and the treatment will be scheduled in a timely manner.
Treatment of bradycardia
Carefully examining and consulting a specialist will help alleviate the condition and prevent many serious diseases and the most dangerous - myocardial infarction.
Hospitalization will be one of the options for treating bradycardia, because it is in the hospital with the use of many methods of examination that it becomes possible to choose the dose of drugs. But even in the absence of symptoms and treatment, you do not need to hold, but you should not relax, the doctor's consultation will not hurt.
In the fight against bradycardia, it is worthwhile to find out the cause of its occurrence and to work on it. The drugs act symptomatically, but their uncontrolled use can be fatal. With the inability of the pacemaker to perform his direct duties, he must be stimulated. Especially for this purpose, pacemakers are used, when an artificial pacemaker is implanted into the human body - this is the most radical treatment option for the disease.
Medications are prescribed depending on the cause, if it is the thyroid gland( a decrease in its function), the correction of hormones will lead to an improvement. Abolition of some medications will also help to alleviate the condition, and an additional sorbent intake will help to remove the remnants of medications throughout the week.
Vegetative disorders are eliminated with the help of tonic vasodilators. Bradycardia caused by the toxic effects of microorganisms or viruses passes after the use of antibiotics or antiviral drugs. Thus, a well-coordinated team of a cardiologist and other specialists will help to defeat the disease.
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