Fruits in diabetes mellitus - what can, and what is not allowed?
A diet with a restriction of carbohydrate intake is an important component in the treatment of diabetes. Many different opinions and disputes raise the question: can I apply fruit and berries in case of diabetes? If yes, which of them? How to eat with diabetes? How much can they be used when? We will answer all of these questions in this article.
It is not only possible to apply fruit in case of diabetes, but it is also necessary, since many of them have minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids necessary for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. But when choosing fruit and berries you need to take into account the glycemic index of selected foods.
What is the glycemic index of food?
Glycemic index is the rate of assimilation of carbohydrates entering the body into the blood. Depending on the speed, the following are distinguished:
- Products with a low glycemic index( less than 30%), which can be taken to diabetics without any restrictions. These include pearl barley and toluene cereals, dietary meat( chicken, turkey, geese) and some types of vegetables.
- Products with a glycemic index of 30-70%, which can be consumed, but their GI should be taken into account at a dose of insulin administered. These include eggs, all dairy products, beans, beets, oatmeal, peas, buckwheat.
- Products with a high index( 70-90%), which should be limited in nutrition. These include all other cereals, honey, chocolate, sweet turnips, potatoes, green peas, pastries, rice, semolina, wheat, barley and wheat cereals.
- Products with a very high index, which are forbidden to eat with diabetes. These include corn, white bread, sugar, sweets and sweets.
As for fruit, the diet should be supplemented with fruits with low and medium glycemic index, and fruits with a high and very high index should be restricted in use and completely discarded.
What kind of fruit can I eat with diabetes?
It is known that all fruits, without exception, contain vitamins, and vitamins for diabetics are very necessary, as they are accelerators of metabolic processes, including carbohydrate and fat.
In addition, all fruits contain fiber, which increases the excretion of toxins from the intestine, thereby reducing weight. A lot of pectin is contained, as a rule, in the skin of many fruits, and pectin reduces sugar and reduces the amount of cholesterol in the blood. Of all fruits, it is preferable to eat sour and xylo-sweet fruits.
Fruits with low and medium glycemic index:
- Apples, pears, peaches, plums.
- Almost all berries( gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries, mountain ash, currants), cherry, watermelon, melon, grenades.
- Citrus fruits, which include grapefruit, orange, lemon.
- Tropical fruits from which you can eat papaya, mango, pineapple, kiwi.
What kind of fruit can not be eaten by diabetics?
The same fruits, cooked with sugar or other additives, and also dried, have a much higher level of glycemic index, so they should be limited when consumed by people with diabetes. Also, it is not recommended for diabetics to take freshly squeezed juices from these same fruits, since there is much more glucose in the juice than in a normal fruit.
Fashionable passion for fresh juices has led to the fact that in recent years the incidence rate of children with diabetes has sharply increased, because with the use of a large amount of glucose there is a sharp jump of glucose in the blood and an increased load on the pancreas.
In addition, you can not eat bananas, figs, dates, raisins, grapes, sweet cherries, persimmons, since these products contain a very large amount of glucose.
- Apples and pears, which are considered the most useful in diabetes mellitus, as they have pectin, fiber, vitamins, minerals in their composition.
- Cherry - contains a useful substance coumarin, which dissolves blood clots and prevents their formation.
- Citrus fruits contain a large amount of useful coarse fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin C. It is especially useful to use grapefruit for diabetes, at least for 1 fetus a day, since they are now on sale in the market for a year.
- Raspberries and gooseberries, which have antioxidant properties and slow down the aging process. A day is enough to eat a serving that fits in a small mug.
- Black currant, which contains most of the vitamin C, although other currant varieties are also useful. In addition to fruits, it is useful to brew currant leaves along with tea. It has lymphatic and vascular strengthening action.
- Strawberries and strawberries are well suited for diabetics who have a heart rhythm disorder or other pathology of the cardiovascular system. These berries contain a large amount of magnesium, potassium, vitamin C.
- The tropical fruit of kiwi in diabetes mellitus not only regulates blood sugar levels, but also regulates weight. This feature is irreplaceable, especially with fermentopathy, when the work of the entire pancreas suffers. Kiwi enzymes help burn fat, thus reducing excess weight, cleaning the walls of the vessels and strengthening them.
In addition, it should be remembered that in diabetes, it is undesirable to eat fruits in large quantities, since all of them, one way or another, refer to products with restriction of use. And do not forget that after consuming a large amount of fruit, you need to measure the amount of sugar so that you do not feel bad afterwards.
Use in meals of fractional small portions will help to optimize the receipt of the necessary vitamins, which are rich in all fruits, and reduce the risk of a sharp increase in the amount of glucose in the blood. In a general diet, the amount of fruit can be a fraction of one-third of all food that can go into each meal. The optimal number of meals a day is at least 4-5 times.
All these recommendations concern mainly patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus type 2, since in type 1 diabetes patients always receive insulin, which maintains blood sugar level.