Increase in the fetal pelvis of the kidney and the process of treatment
Pyeloectasia is an expansion of the kidneys. An increase in the fetal pelvis of the kidney indicates an innate form of pyeloectasia. If, simultaneously with an increase in pelvis, the kidney cups increase, the pathology is called pyelocalicectasia or hydronephrosis transformation in the kidneys. If, together with an increase in renal pelvis, an increase in the ureter is observed, then such a pathology is called ureteropyeloctasia.
Five times more often, pyeloectasia occurs in males. In addition, one kidney or two kidneys can be affected at the same time. Light manifestations of the disease can pass without medical intervention, but severe manifestations suggest the organization of the operation.
When the renal pelvis is dilated in a child's body, usually such abnormalities are associated with abnormal fetal development. The fetus is diagnosed by ultrasound during pregnancy. Usually the diagnosis can be made already during the survey on the sixteenth - twentieth week of bearing a child.
Congenital damage to the urinary system develops as a result of genetic characteristics or due to the negative influence of environmental factors on the woman's body in the process of bearing a child.
Causes of the disease
The expansion of the kidneys of the kidneys in the fetus can occur under the influence of the following factors:
- Incorrect fetal development followed by the formation of a valve in the ureteropelvic junction, which causes a high urinary leakage.
- General weakening of the muscles due to the premature birth of a newborn.
- Squeezing of the ureter with a large blood vessel or other organs during the development of anomalies in their structure or because of disproportionate organ growth.
- Frequent bladder overflow occurs when a child rarely goes to the toilet with large amounts of urine. Thus, a kind of neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder appears.
Consequences and complications of the disease
Pyeloectasia itself does not pose a danger, it is much more serious to treat the causes that triggered the development of this pathology. Difficulties associated with urinating from the kidney should be eliminated in a timely manner. Otherwise, the kidney tissues are squeezed and their subsequent atrophy occurs. In this regard, the functioning of the kidney is gradually deteriorating, which can lead to its complete death.
In addition, urinary diversion is often able to be supplemented by the formation of an acute or chronic form of bacterial inflammatory process in the kidney, which significantly worsens its work and provokes sclerosis of the organ tissue.
It is very important to organize a complete examination and establish the causes of the pathology when making the diagnosis of pyeloectasia, and also to eliminate these causes in a timely manner.
Diagnosis of the disease
An enlarged kidney in the fetus can be recognized in the second half of pregnancy. Usually such deviations are revealed in male fetuses. The norm of the kidney in the fetus in the second trimester is no more than 5 mm, and in the third trimester - no more than 7 mm. An increase in the size of a pelvis larger than 10 mm is called hydronephrosis and is caused by excessive accumulation of fluid in the kidneys.
Renal pelvis is a special cavity in which urine accumulates before it enters the ureters, and then into the bladder. At times, more urine accumulates in the pelvis, so pressure on its walls increases, and it begins to expand. This process is explained by the difficulties associated with the urinary retention of the kidneys, for example, with narrowing of the ureters. Such a process can become single and after a certain time passes independently, but it can also correlate with pathologies of the anatomical structure of the urinary canals.
Several times more often, pyeloectasia affects the male fetus and is mainly caused by differences in the structure of the male and female urinary tract. It turns out that the expanded renal pelvis in a male fetus is often formed due to the physiological structure. But the female fetus retains the likelihood of such a change and subsequently.
Also, the bilateral form of pyeloectasia is more often caused by physiological factors, in contrast to the one-sided shape. In this case, the doctor must exclude the presence of other anomalies in the development of the urinary system, since they increase the risk of additional abnormalities.
The only detection in the fetus of an enlargement of the kidneys of the kidney, even with a size of more than 10 mm, is of little importance, since the specialist must necessarily examine the picture of the development of the disease in dynamics. If the pyelonectasia in the fetus persists right up to the time of birth, then later it is necessary to continue monitoring the newborn in the postpartum period.
In most children, pyelonectasia is practically not manifested and passes on without medication due to the ripening of the urinary tract.
The isolated form of pyeloectasia is an indicator of genetic abnormalities, but it can often occur with genetic disorders simultaneously with echographic abnormalities in other organs. It turns out that the diagnosis of a moderate isolated form of pyelonectasia should not be considered a cause for concern, since such an anomaly involves only monitoring by ultrasound examination.
Treatment of the disease
With a pronounced progressive pyeloectasia after the birth of a child, he may need surgical intervention. Pyeloectasia is not a consequence of hypoxia or fetal infection, so medication will not bring any results.