• Glossitis: symptoms and treatment, photos, causes

    Glossitis is an inflammatory process that is characterized by a lesion of the tongue with a tendency to either a chronic or an acute course.

    The nature of the flow depends on the reactivity of the organism and the type of pathological process.

    Most often, dentists face this problem. However, for treatment, doctors of related specialties may sometimes be involved.

    Classification of

    The following types of glossitis are distinguished:

    1. 1) Primary, which is an independent disease
    2. 2) Secondary, in which glossitis is the manifestation of some other pathological process( background disease, for example, stomach ulcer).
    Given the nature of the pathological process and the causative factor, the following types of glossitis are distinguished:

    1. 1) Desquamative - characterized by sloughing of the epithelium at specific places, giving the tongue a geographic appearance
    2. 2) Candidiasis, which is caused by yeast-like fungi with characteristic clinical manifestations( curds in the tongue)
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    4. 3) Hunter's( the tongue has a "lacquer" appearance), which occurs with a deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12, involved in the division of epithelial cells
    5. 4) Rhombus(in general, this is a sign of the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract)
    6. 5) Catarrhal with superficial inflammation( often accompanied by stomatitis)
    7. 6) Atrophic, in which there is a deficitvitamins A and E
    8. 7) Aftous, characterized by the presence of ulcerative defects on the mucous membrane of the tongue( is a manifestation of aphthous stomatitis)
    9. 8) Folded, which is a consequence of the anomaly of language development.

    Causes of glossitis of

    Given two etiological types of glossitis, two groups of causative factors are identified that lead to the development of this disease.

    Primary glossitis can cause conditions such as:

    • perniasis anemia associated with vitamin B deficiency 12 in the body
    • iron deficiency anemia
    • dermatological diseases - Behcet's syndrome, erythema multiforme
    • syphilis
    • tuberculosis, etc.
    The causative factors of secondary glossitis are as follows:

    • candidiasis lesions of the tongue
    • aphthous stomatitis
    • herpetic lesions of the
    • tongue activation of the opportunistic microflora on the background of decreased immunity, especially in HIV-infected patients
    • traumatic injuries of the
    • local effect of irritants( nicotine, menthol,spices, etc.)
    • malignant pathological processes in the oral cavity
    • leukoplakia.
    In addition, it is common to identify predisposing factors that increase the likelihood of developing glossitis several times. These include:

    • improper nutrition
    • wearing improperly manufactured dental prostheses
    • consuming too hot food that causes a burn of the mucous tongue
    • convulsive syndrome, which is often accompanied by a bite of the tongue
    • non-compliance with personal hygiene rules for oral care
    • bad habits( alcoholism, nicotinedependence)
    • patients in the age at whom the mucous membrane of the tongue becomes thinned
    • various acquired and congenital immunodeficient conditions.

    Symptoms of glossitis

    Glossitis as an inflammatory disease is characterized by all the symptoms of inflammation that were described in ancient times by Hippocrates. There are only 5 of them:

    • redness
    • edema
    • function violation
    • rise in temperature local
    • pain.
    In the case of inflammation of the tongue, the clinical picture is as follows:

    1. 1) There are pains in the area of ​​the tongue, which are aggravated by eating, talking, etc.
    2. 2) The tongue looks red and swollen on examination, which affects the patient's diction( difficult speech, shaving the tongue when talking)
    3. 3) In the chronic process, the papillae of the tongue gradually become atrophied, so the mucous membrane becomes smooth and shiny( the "lacquer" tongue).Most often it occurs with pernicious anemia, associated with an insufficient intake of vitamin B12 in the body. This vitamin is necessary for the normal division of epithelial cells, so when it is deficient, this process is broken and the mucous membrane becomes thinner.
    4. 4) Burning in the area of ​​
    5. 5) In the presence of candidiasis lesions and leukoplakia( keratinization of the tongue), white foci appear, etc.
    The appearance of ulcers in a language that is not accompanied by pain is always suspicious of a malignant oncological process, which is characterized by the development of reactive glossitis. Therefore, in such cases, all patients need to undergo a biopsy( taking a tissue sample) followed by a histological examination.

    In individuals with immunodeficiency or in case of malignant infection, glossitis may be accompanied by lymphadenopathy. Regional lymph nodes( cervical, submandibular) increase in size, become painful, their mobility may be limited.

    Based on the clinical symptoms of glossitis, you can put the final diagnosis. However, additional research methods are needed to determine the cause of this disease. Therefore, the diagnostic search is carried out, which includes the following studies:

    • general clinical blood analysis
    • serological responses for the diagnosis of causally significant infections
    • bacteriological examination of smears from the mucous membrane of the
    • microscopy of the detachable with candida detection in the
    • smear biochemical blood test, including withdetermination of vitamin B 12 in the blood
    • biopsy of the tongue, conducted according to strict indications.

    Treatment of glossitis

    Treatment of glossitis should be based on the following principles:

    1. 1) The most gentle mode - avoiding injuries to the mucous membrane of the tongue with food, irritating chemicals, etc.
    2. 2) In case of severe pain,
    3. pain relief medications are prescribed 3) Hygienic measures of the oral cavity
    4. 4) Rinse the mouth with
    5. antiseptic solutions 5) Use of food at room temperature, preferably in liquid form
    6. 6) Use of antibiotics taking into account the possible causative agent of the disease. In case of candidiasis, the use of antifungal agents is indicated, penicillins are used for streptococcal infections, etc.
    7. 7) Vitaminotherapy, which allows to strengthen the immunity and to fill the existing deficiency of
    8. . 8) Parallel treatment of background pathological process is shown if glossitis is secondary( doctors of different specialties may be involved).
    Orthopedic treatment by the dentist is carried out if the dentures cause trauma to the mucous membrane of the tongue. Only after fitting the dentures is shown the holding of other therapeutic measures, which otherwise will prove to be ineffective.

    In the absence of timely treatment of glossitis, the development of purulent-inflammatory complications is possible. They lend themselves to therapy worse than glossitis, and require the use of more active drugs.

    In conclusion, it should be noted that glossitis can be due to various causes, which sometimes may indicate a secondary pathological process. However, in order to effectively treat this disease, a thorough differential diagnostic search is necessary. Based on the results, the doctor prescribes appropriate conservative treatment.

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