Diet with cholelithiasis
Mar 06, 2018
Well-designed diet for cholelithiasis( ZHBC), along with folk methods of treatment, is the main "medicine" in the healing process.
The diet helps not only to significantly alleviate the patient's condition, but also effectively eliminates the inflammatory processes in the biliary tract, stimulates bile secretion and prevents the formation of new gallstones.
Causes and symptoms of cholelithiasis ^
Gallstone disease is characterized by deposition in the gallbladder and ducts of stones( stones), which are divided into cholesterol, pigment, calcareous and combined.
The formation of stones contributes to congestion of bile and infection in the biliary tract and gallbladder. The main causes of cholelithiasis, according to doctors:
- genetic predisposition,
- lack of physical activity,
- metabolic disorder,
- improper diet.
Often an impetus to the development of the disease is pregnancy on the background of the woman's hormonal changes in the body. As a result of these adverse factors, bile changes its physico-chemical properties and thickens. In addition, the causes of bile congestion may be neuroses, infectious bowel diseases, stomach ulcers, gastritis, pancreatitis, or weakness of the gallbladder muscles.
With the slowing down of the contractile-motor function of the gallbladder, with the consumption of large amounts of fatty, spicy and fried foods, alcohol, large time intervals between meals and a lack of fiber and fiber, the accumulation of bile may double( at a rate of 75-100 mlthe increase reaches 150-200 ml).
The main symptoms of stagnation of bile, which should be closely watched, are:
- permanent or prolonged pain in the right upper quadrant,
- unpleasant burp,
- nausea or vomiting,
- bitter taste in the mouth with an unpleasant odor,
- mild yellowing sclera of the eyes and skin,
- small enlargement of the liver.
If stasis of bile occurs not only in the gallbladder, but also in the liver ducts, itching pruritus, pronounced jaundice, severe pain in the right hypochondrium, feces becomes light, and urine acquires the color of "beer".
For any of the above symptoms, you must always consult a doctor to start timely treatment and correct diagnosis, since delay in some cases can be deadly.
Principles of the diet for cholelithiasis ^
An effective diet for cholelithiasis is primarily intended to combat metabolic disturbances in the body that promote the formation of stones. First of all, it is necessary to establish a cholesterol metabolism, since the main part of gallstones is, as a rule, cholesterol.
The basic principles of the diet for cholelithiasis are based on the fight against hypercholesterolemia( high cholesterol in the blood):
- The fight against excess diet, besides hypercholesterolemia, also helps to cope with obesity - a frequent companion of the violation of cholesterol metabolism. To do this, it is recommended to reduce the daily energy value of food due to digestible carbohydrates and fats, and also to conduct regular unloading days( oat, curd, cucumber, apple, kefir, etc.).
- Restrict cholesterol intake to food. The richest foods that should be excluded are fatty meat and fish, liver, brains, heart, egg yolk, lamb, fat, beef fat.
- The reduction in the blood level of cholesterol and the removal of it from the body is promoted by magnesium-rich foods, so the diet for cholelithiasis must necessarily include porridges( especially oats, barley and millet), legumes, vegetables and fruits. In addition, magnesium relieves spasm of smooth muscles, improves the motor function of the intestines and stimulates the separation of bile.
- For better production of bile acids, the ration should contain a sufficient number of high-grade proteins( fish, meat, cottage cheese, egg white), vegetable oils( olive, sunflower, corn) and vitamins( A, B and C).Especially important is retinol( vitamin A), the lack of which provokes the sloughing of the epithelium of the bile ducts and the crystallization of bile.
- It is necessary to achieve a shift in the reaction of bile to the alkaline side in order to prevent the formation of stone formation and to prevent the loss of cholesterol from the bile. This is promoted by products with a high content of calcium( cottage cheese, cheese, kefir, yogurt) and vegetable food( vegetables, fruits, berries).Flour and cereal dishes, on the contrary, contribute to the oxidation of bile, so their use should be limited as much as possible.
- To stimulate bile secretion, wash the biliary tract and reduce the bile concentration, a sufficient drinking regime( at least 2 liters of water per day) is necessary. The mineral water, such as Essentuki No. 17 and Truskavetska, also has a favorable effect.
- Do not allow constipation, including for this purpose in the diet products that stimulate the emptying of the intestines( lactic products, beets, prunes, honey, fiber from vegetables and fruits).
- Since the best stimulant of bile secretion is food, it should be taken in small portions and evenly throughout the day, with 5-6 meals a day. Food should in no case be cold, as this can cause spasm of the ducts and severe pain, but not hot.
- It is forbidden to drink alcohol, carbonated drinks, spices and seasonings( vinegar, mustard, pepper), marinades, smoked products, fish and meat broths, mushroom broths, muffins, sour fruits and berries, chocolate, cocoa, coffee.
The diet for cholelithiasis differs depending on the stage of the disease the patient is in, at the stage of exacerbation or remission.
Diet for cholelithiasis: magnesium menu, № 5 and № 5 А ^
In case of acute disease and exacerbations of the disease, one should adhere to the most sparing diet № 5а.
- All dishes should be steamed and used in a garbled form.
- In addition, the highest possible exclusion of foods with high cholesterol, coarse fiber( cabbage), extracts and essential oils.
- The diet should contain physiologically necessary amount of protein( about 100 g), the amount of fat should be reduced to 50 -70 grams, salt should not be used more than 6 grams per day.
Sample diet menu № 5 A
- The first breakfast - milk semolina porridge( 150 g), protein omelet( 100 g of two proteins), loose tea with milk( 1 glass).
- The second breakfast - steamed meat patties( 125 g), buckwheat cereal wiped with olive oil( 150 g), bread, tea.
- Lunch - rice soup with mashed vegetables( 1/2 portion), boiled chicken( 120 g), wiped buckwheat porridge( 150 g), milk jelly( 120 g).
- Dinner - boiled fish( 80 g), mashed potatoes( 150 g.), Tea with milk.
Diet № 5 A is usually prescribed for a period of 1.5 - 2 weeks, after which it is necessary to switch to diet No. 5, which is used for a long time, for 1.5 -2 years.
With weakened gallbladder function and bile stagnation, it is advisable to adhere to the lipotropic fat diet, increasing the amount of fats due to vegetable oils.
The energy value of lipotropic fat diet is 2800-3200 Kcal, contains 100-120 g of protein, 120-130 g of fats( of which not less than 50% of vegetable fats) and 350-400 g of carbohydrates. Sample diet menu № 5
- The first breakfast - curd pudding without sugar( 130 g), buckwheat porridge with vegetable oil( 160 g), tea with milk( 1 glass).
- The second breakfast is fresh apples of non-acid varieties( 100 g).
- Lunch - vegetarian vegetable soup( 500 g), boiled meat with milk sauce( 50 g), stewed carrots on vegetable oil( 150 g), compote of dried fruits( 1 glass).
- Snack - unsweetened crackers( 25 g), broth of wild rose( 1 glass).
- Dinner - boiled fish with vegetable oil( 85 g), boiled potatoes with vegetable oil( 150 g), cabbage-carrot chops baked with vegetable oil( 200 g), tea.
- Before going to bed - kefir( 180 g).
During the day, butter is allowed( 10 g), sugar( 30 g) and wheat bread( 300 g).
Magnesium diet with
After elimination of exacerbations of the disease and insufficient evacuation of the intestine, a special magnesium diet can be used which has an energy value of about 2900 kcal and contains: the required amount of protein( 100 g),
Magnesium diet, which is based on diet number 5, is often prescribed for atherosclerosis, cholecystitis and constipation, especially in combination with obesity, but with gastritis or enterocolitis, accompanied by diarrhea and fermentation, it is not recommended.
For the enrichment of the diet with magnesium, the menu introduces bread with a bran or wholemeal meal, dishes from ground wheat bran, millet and buckwheat porridge and an increased amount of fruits and vegetables, including dried fruits.
Popular recipes for the diet for cholelithiasis ^
Here are some recipes that you can use when making a menu of magnesium diet for cholelithiasis.
Borsch on mucous decoction from bran
- In 400 ml of water add 40 g of bran, cook for 15 minutes and wipe through a sieve.
- Put fresh cabbage( 40 g), grated on a large grater with beets( 50 g), brown white roots( 20 g) and onion( 10 g) in fresh broth.
- Cook all together until ready for 10 - 15 minutes.
Oat soup with vegetables
- Boil the broth from the bran, as in the previous recipe.
- Add the sliced carrots( 50 g), pumpkin( 30 g) and zucchini( 30 g) with cubes to the broth, sauteed onions( 10 g).
- Cook all 10 minutes, add the finely chopped greens of dill and parsley to the prepared soup.
Buckwheat with curd
- Cook the buckwheat porridge on the milk( for 60 g of buckwheat - 150 g of milk), cool a little and add 30 g of cottage cheese and 1/3 of the egg.
- The resulting mass is well mixed, form the beads( wet hands), zakaniruyte crushed breadcrumbs and fry in butter( 10 g).
- Serve on the table with sour cream.
Cabbage cutlets with apples
- 150 g white cabbage finely chop and cook until half cooked.
- Then add 40 g of peeled cut apples, stir and simmer until the cabbage is ready.
- After this, pour 15 g of manga there and heat on low heat for about 10 minutes.
- After cooling, beat it in?eggs, carefully stir, form cutlets, bread in breadcrumbs and fry in melted butter or bake in the oven.
Millet porridge with dried apricots
- To 75 ml of water, pour 50 g of wheat and cook until half-ready.
- Then add 10 g of butter, 25 g of dried apricots, a little sugar and cook in a water bath until fully prepared.