Basal correction: photo, treatment, symptoms, initial stage
Refers to the local form of malignant skin epidermis.
The main feature of the neoplasm is the inability of desmination( spreading) from the primary node to other parts of the body - neither by the bloodstream nor through the lymphatic system.
General picture of the disease
To prevent the manifestation of basal cell carcinoma, in principle it is impossible. It can appear in any part of the body, excluding feet and palms.
Localization of the neoplasm can be manifested in healthy skin, in areas of various dystrophic skin processes, whether it is clinically late radiation dermatitis, places of the thickened stratum corneum or at the sites of cicatricial atrophy.
Favorite places of development:
- areas of the face - area of the nose and nasolabial folds;
- on the skin of the back and shoulders;
- in front, on the skin of the chest.
It is noted that in the black population, even living in countries with high solar activity, basal cell appears in a more gentle form, mostly - superficial, than in fair-skinned and red people. This is due to the amount of production of natural dark pigments - melanocyte cells, "living" in the lower layers of the skin, and performing, in a way, the protective function of the skin.
The clinical picture of the neoplasm manifests itself in single forms with slow growth, can grow over the years. An impetus to the development of basal cell carcinoma, in the form of a painful plaque or nodule, can be trauma, scratching or accidental cut during shaving. These processes cause its ulceration and stimulate growth.
Ulcerous formation rather slowly grows around the perimeter and inside, occupies areas of clean skin. A tumor on the face can hit the eyelid, destroy it, penetrate the eyeball and penetrate the bone. Basaloma with localization on the nose, can destroy everything in its path - cartilage, bones, leaving behind a "gaping hole".
Symptoms of basalioma
Provocative factor of the manifestation of the disease are many reasons:
- action of direct sunlight;
- exposure to carcinogen on the body - various dyes, chemical elements of arsenic, the presence of amorphous carbons( soot), pyrolysis products, nicotine gums.
- action of electromagnetic radiation;
- hereditary pathology.
- single, dense, hemispherical formations.
- there is a small groove inside.
- has a limited shape, not exceeding one centimeter in diameter.
- slightly rises above the surface of the skin.
- after a while there is a slight itch.
- under tension, nodules are clearly visible.
- nodules have a yellowish-gray or matte-white color.
- increasing, the tumor becomes painful, and when the surface crust is removed, bleeding occurs.
Types of neoplasm
Several forms of basalioma are noted in medical classification:
1) The most common of these is the nodular form. It is this form that subsequently gives rise to other types of education, its symptoms:
- has exophytic growth, expressed by the swelling over the skin of plaque or nodular formations that can germinate into the organ on which it forms, break down along the path of tissue and grow into bone;
- nodules have a glossy appearance with a pink color;
- causes soreness, erosion and ulceration;
- bleeds easily and metastasize, increasing in size to four centimeters or more.
- of flat plaque formations;
- formation has raised cylindrical edges;
- of the basaloma of this species has a tendency to ulceration.
- into formation with a peeling surface of pale pink color;
- the surface of the spot is glossy, the edges are raised with a depression in the center;
- sometimes marked with a discharge of the syphilis;
- tumor metastasizes in rare cases.
4) The infiltrative form of the tumor is expressed by the following symptoms:
- by the appearance of pale yellow formations( plaques) on the skin of the nose and face;
- has a perineural shape of metastasis germination;
- manifests itself as frequent relapses after treatment.
- sclerodermal and pigmentary form,
- ulcerative, scar and fibrous appearance.
Diagnosis of basalioma
Diagnosis of neoplasms is based on a thorough examination of the medical history and biopsy data.
Similarity of symptoms with other pathologies provides differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma, for the exception of:
- of a common mole and sebaceous hyperplasia;
- of molluscum contagiosum and herpes zoster;
- eczema and psoriasis;
- of senile and seborrheic keratosis;
- melanoma and localized scleroderma;
- of intraepithelial cancer.
Treatment of basalioma
To compile a curative plan and determine the procedure for treating basal cells, all factors of the disease are taken into account - location, depth of lesion, and medical history.
The most common techniques:
1) Curettage and fulguration are a fairly common method of removing malignant growths on the body surface and extremities. The essence of the method consists in the formation of the formation with the help of a spoon-like curettage, and the burning out of residual phenomena by the electrocoagulation method - fulguration. Simultaneously, burning blood vessels and stopping bleeding.
2) The method of cryosurgery - is used to remove surface forms of education. Since the process of freezing a liquid nitrogen tumor does not control the depth of freezing, then the possible remnants of cancer cells, the ampullas removal ambassador, after a certain time can trigger a relapse.
For the removal of superficial forms of neoplasm, the doctor can also advise laser surgery.
Surgical excision with an ordinary scalpel is used for resection with basalomas of medium caliber, characterized by aggressive currents. Together with the tumor adjacent tissue is removed to exclude the possibility of preserving cancer cells. Samples are sent for histological examination, and the wound is sutured.
3) Mohs surgery is a micrographic method with a tissue-holding technique of conducting an operation. The method is specifically designed to remove cancerous tumors on the skin of the face and other sensitive areas. The technique of the operation consists in layer-by-layer freezing and layer-by-layer removal of the affected tissues with simultaneous control for the maintenance of cancer cells.
Allows to completely remove them, getting to the unaffected layer, narrows the operating field, which virtually prevents the appearance of any skin defects and scars. The largest percentage is a cure and no relapse.
For patients who have a high risk of complications, or to remove tumors in hard-to-reach places, a method of radiation therapy is proposed. The method is effective in the initial stage of the disease.
Prognosis and prevention of basal cell carcinoma
The prognosis of basal cell carcinoma is favorable, as it rarely gives metastases. Fear should be relapsed, as they proceed in a more aggressive form. In patients who have already suffered a similar disease, the risk of re-emergence is quite high.
To prevent this from happening, preventative measures should be followed:
- avoid being under the sun during its most active period;
- apply a protective cream on the skin;
- protects from sunlight the most prone areas - face and neck;
- replace products containing animal proteins for foods high in vegetable protein;
- in time treat long-term non-healing wounds and ulcers;
- do not allow injury to old scars;
- , pay special attention to injuries and wounds in areas of friction.
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