What is the hormone insulin responsible for and what is its effect on the human body?
The metabolism in humans is a complex and multistage process, and its influence is influenced by various hormones and biologically active substances. Insulin, produced by special formations located in the thickness of the pancreas( islets of Langerhans-Sobolev), is a substance capable of directly or indirectly participate in virtually all metabolic processes in the tissues of the body.
Insulin is a peptide hormone, which is so important for normal nutrition and functioning of body cells. It is a transporter of glucose, amino acids and potassium. The action of this hormone is the regulation of the carbohydrate balance. After eating, there is an increase in the amount of the substance in the blood serum in response to the production of glucose.
What is insulin used for?
Insulin is an indispensable hormone, without it a normal process of cellular nutrition in the body is impossible. With its help, there is transport of glucose, potassium and amino acids. The effect is maintenance and regulation of carbohydrate balance in the body. Being a peptide( protein) hormone, it can not enter the body from the outside through the gastrointestinal tract - its molecule will be digested, like any substance of protein nature in the intestine.
Insulin in the human body is responsible for metabolism and energy, that is, it has a multifaceted and complex effect on metabolism in all tissues. Many effects are realized due to its ability to act on the activity of a number of enzymes.
Insulin is the only hormone that helps reduce blood glucose.
In diabetes mellitus of the first shooting range, the level of insulin in the blood is disrupted, in other words, due to its inadequate production, the level of glucose( sugar) in the blood rises, urination increases and sugar appears in the urine, which is why this disease is called sugar diabetes. In diabetes mellitus of the second type, the action of insulin is disrupted. For such purposes, it is necessary to conduct IRI monitoring in blood serum, that is, a blood test for immunoreactive insulin. Analysis of the content of this indicator is necessary in order to identify the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as determine the correctness of the pancreas for the further administration of therapeutic treatment with medications.
Analysis of the level of this hormone in the blood makes it possible not only to detect any disturbance in the functioning of the pancreas, but also to accurately distinguish between diabetes mellitus and another similar disease. That is why this study is considered very important.
In diabetes mellitus, not only carbohydrate metabolism is disrupted, but fat and protein metabolism suffers. The presence of severe forms of diabetes in the absence of timely treatment can lead to a fatal outcome.
preparations The human body's need for insulin can be measured in carbohydrate units( UE).Dosage always depends on the type of medication that is being administered. If we talk about the functional insufficiency of pancreatic cells, in which there is a reduced content of insulin in the blood, a therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus is shown to stimulate the activity of these cells, for example, butamide.
By its mechanism of action, this drug( as well as its analogues) improves the absorption of insulin present in the blood, organs and tissues, so it is sometimes said that it is insulin in tablets. His search for ingestion is really under way, but to date no manufacturer has introduced a drug on the pharmaceutical market that can save millions of people from daily injections.
Insulin preparations are usually administered subcutaneously. Their effect on average starts in 15-30 minutes, the maximum content in the blood is observed after 2 -3 hours, the duration of action is 6 hours. In the presence of severe diabetes, insulin is administered 3 times a day - on an empty stomach in the morning, at lunch and in the evening.
In order to increase the duration of action of insulin, drugs with prolonged action are used. To such medical preparations it is necessary to carry a suspension of zinc-insulin( the duration of action is from 10 to 36 hours), or a suspension of protamine-zinc( duration of action 24 - 36 hours).The above drugs are designed for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection.
In cases of an overdose of insulin preparations, a sharp drop in glucose in the blood can be observed, this condition is called hypoglycemia. Of the characteristic signs should be noted aggressiveness, sweating, irritability, a strong sense of hunger, in some cases there is hypoglycemic shock( convulsions, loss of consciousness, violation of cardiac activity).At the first symptoms of hypoglycemia, the patient must urgently eat a piece of sugar, cookies or a slice of white bread. In the presence of hypoglycemic shock, intravenous administration of 40% glucose solution is necessary.
The use of insulin can cause a number of allergic reactions, for example, redness at the injection site, hives, and others. In such cases, it is advisable to switch to other drugs, for example, suinsulin, after consulting with the treating specialist. Independently it is not possible to refuse the prescribed administration of the substance - the patient may quickly show signs of lack of hormone and coma caused by a high blood glucose level.