• Obesity: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

    It is known that in the world more than 30% of the population suffer from obesity.

    Moreover, in those or other countries there is the greatest concentration of people with such a disease.

    For example, in the USA, Nauru, the Cook Islands and Tonga, the Netherlands live up to 40% of fat people. This is due to the mentality, lifestyle and taste preferences of people.

    Cheap fast food in the United States has caused an increase in the body weight of the population, and increased welfare in developed countries has caused problems associated with obesity.

    What is obesity? This increase in body weight due to increased fat tissue. Fat is deposited in the area of ​​the hips, abdomen or mammary glands. As a result, the work of the whole organism is disrupted, morbidity and even mortality increase.

    The factor that affects fat metabolism is the balance of energy balance. If there is an imbalance between absorbed and expended energy, then sooner or later body weight will increase and obesity will develop.
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    Obesity refers to the hypothalamic-pituitary type of the disease associated with food intake and hormonal problems. With obesity, the secretion of ACTH increases, the metabolism accelerates, so the patient feels hunger all the time. Obesity is alimentary-constitutional, hypothalamic, endocrine.

    The first type appears with constant overeating, lack of physical activity and is observed in the majority of family members. Hypothalamic type of obesity is associated with problems in hypothalamic functions and leads to various complications. Endocrine obesity is a consequence of endocrine pathology.

    Obesity levels of

    The disease can be progressive or stable. There are 4 degrees of obesity. At the first degree there is an excess of body weight by 29%.The second degree is characterized by exceeding the mass by 30-40%, at the third degree - the excess weight is 50-99%, and at the fourth degree the body weight is actually greater than normal by 100% or more.

    It is possible to calculate the body mass index( BMI), which characterizes the degree of obesity. The index is determined by the formula: body weight( kg) / height( m).For example, the initial data: 1.80cm height and 100kg weight. We consider: 1.80 * 1.80 = 3.24, now we divide the weight by the obtained number: 100 / 3.24 = 30.86 BMI.

    If the index is 20-24.9 kg / m2, then the weight of a person is normal.

    • with an elevated index is 25.0-29.9 kg / m2.
    • if the body mass index is 30.0-34.9 kg / m2, then it is customary to diagnose the first degree of obesity.
    • at an index of 35.0-39.9 kg / m2 observed II degree of obesity.
    • and a figure exceeding 40.0 or more kg / m2 indicates obesity of grade III.
    Patients at the first and second degree usually do not complain about health, but at the third and fourth there are a number of problems related to the general state and mood. There is a nervous condition, weakness, puffiness, sometimes pain in the joints and spine. In women, there is a violation of menstruation and infertility, in men - impotence.

    Causes of obesity: why do people become fat

    The main cause of obesity is inactivity, low-activity lifestyle and improper diet. People prone to fattening, often abuse alcohol, carbonated sweet drinks, use refined foods, sweets and pastries.

    If from childhood a culture of proper nutrition is instilled, then adults easily observe the regime and consume useful foods. There are several reasons for causing diseases associated with excess body weight.

    Reasons for obesity:

    • predisposition, i.e.genetic factors;
    • endocrine diseases( hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, insulinoma);
    • psychological disorders, accompanied by overeating;
    • reception of psychotropic drugs;
    • of the gastrointestinal tract;
    • stress, frequent lack of sleep;
    • inadequate physical activity.
    With an imbalance of energy expended and absorbed, the body stores itself with fat, which is deposited in the legs and abdomen. Obesity is considered central, when fatty tissue accumulates in the abdomen. This is not a "beer belly", but a dangerous disease that leads to diabetes, heart disease and hypertension.

    With central obesity, the ratio of waist volume to hip volume is more than 0.8 for women and more than 0.95 for men. Pathological obesity is accompanied by endocrine disorders and other diseases.

    Clinical manifestations of obesity

    To determine obesity can even be by sight. Obese, fat people move heavily, often breathe. Young people are unsure, lack of communication. They are irritable, sometimes aggressive. Often, their problems are eliminated, absorbing alcohol, beer, too much food and sweets.

    With increased levels of obesity in the afternoon and at night, appetite increases and it is more difficult to fight with each passing day. In this case, it is better to resort to the help of a specialist, where they will provide psychological and counseling assistance, and will conduct appropriate treatment.

    How to treat obesity?

    Complex treatment of obesity is aimed at weight reduction by different methods. First and foremost, a dietician recommends an individual diet with the optimal content of proteins and carbohydrates. It is ideal to calculate caloric intake of food. But, even without calculating calories, you can confidently use easily assimilated products.

    Vegetables and fruits, low-fat cheeses, boiled chicken, rabbit, lamb, black bread, as well as low-fat kefir, greens, nuts and rice. A day is enough to consume 120 grams of carbohydrates, 80-90 grams of fat, 130 grams of protein. It is better to use fractional food( 5-6 times a day).

    Fiber-rich foods quickly saturate the body and facilitate the movement of food through the intestines. Therefore, plant products are indispensable in the diet. It is necessary to arrange unloading days: fruit or protein( 500 grams of low-fat cottage cheese, or 350 grams of meat per day).
    In addition to diet, the doctor prescribes medication, physical therapy, massage, swimming.

    With obesity of the fourth degree, sometimes you have to resort to surgery. There are three types of bariatric surgery:

    1. 1) Gastric bypass, i.e.dividing it into two divisions, the smaller of which is attached to the small intestine, thereby reducing the path of food movement and reducing the absorption of nutrients.
    2. 2) Banding, i.e.the imposition of a bandage( silicone ring) on ​​the border of the stomach and esophagus. Thus, an obstacle is created in the way of food advancement and a person quickly experiences satiety.
    3. 3) Gastroplasty involves removing a small part of the stomach, resulting in its volume decreases by 10 times. The remaining part of the stomach is turned into a sleeve, thereby creating a mechanism for removing the hormone of hunger.
    All operations are performed without incision - laparoscopically. Do not confuse surgical intervention to achieve therapeutic effect and liposuction or abdominoplasty to improve the appearance. Plastic surgery does not fight obesity, they correct cosmetic defects.

    Today, there are many techniques for achieving successful weight loss. The main condition is the patient's desire to achieve the result. This is a great work for strong-minded and purposeful people. Practice shows that daily training and diet help get rid of extra pounds, changing the appearance beyond recognition. Thick and clumsy turn into beautiful, graceful people.

    Predicting weight loss is possible in view of many factors. Age, health, emotional mood affect the achievement of results. At a young age, metabolism is accelerated, and accordingly it is easier to regulate the process of losing weight. The process of reducing body weight is negatively affected by diseases of the internal organs.

    With hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, it is more difficult to pick up physical activity. Although the process of losing weight is more lengthy, but can have good results.

    What causes excess weight?

    Obesity leads to a disorder of the nervous system, the appearance of endocrine problems and diabetes mellitus. Often obesity provokes an increase in blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases.

    Young women can not always get pregnant. The work of internal organs, skin condition worsen. Dermatological diseases often occur. The life expectancy of obese people is lower, as the risks of heart attack and stroke increase.

    Prevention of obesity

    Formation of personality should include modeling of behavior in society, adherence to a healthy lifestyle, diet and proper nutrition.

    At an early age the child must physically develop, be able to harmoniously combine intellectual and physical work, to have an idea of ​​proper nutrition. Beauty, youth, grace will remain with you forever, if you adhere to simple rules of adherence to the regime, proper nutrition and lifestyle.

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