Thyrotoxicosis: symptoms and treatment, causes
This pathology leads to a malfunction of many organs and body systems, and also negatively affects the state of the thyroid itself.
Thyrotoxicosis is a disease of the opposite hypothyroidism, in which the production of hormones, on the contrary, slows down.
Causes of Thyrotoxicosis of the Thyroid Gland
In the vast majority of cases, thyrotoxicosis in women occurs as a consequence of diffuse toxic goiter. More rarely, the "culprit" is a nodal toxic goiter. When the goiter affects the thyroid gland, it significantly increases in size and as a result begins to produce a large number of thyroid hormones.
In addition to goiter, other thyroid diseases may cause thyrotoxicosis: various kinds of thyroiditis, the presence of toxic adenoma. In very rare cases, the appearance of the disease provokes such pathological conditions as ovarian teratomas and certain types of pituitary tumors.
In addition, the disease can cause uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs, in particular, thyroid hormones. The risk factor for the formation of thyrotoxicosis is also heredity, the presence of autoimmune diseases in history and belonging to the female sex.
The disease occurs in three main forms: severe, moderate, and mild.
With a mild form of lesion, only the thyroid gland is affected. Influence on other organs is minimal. Only the heart suffers, but tachycardia, which is present in this form of thyrotoxicosis, occurs almost unnoticeably and does not go beyond the generally accepted norms.
The average degree of toxicosis is characterized by the presence of persistent tachycardia, a significant decrease in weight. There are changes in the work of a large number of organs and body systems: cholesterol is decreased, adrenal gland activity is reduced, metabolism is disrupted.
If a person with thyrotoxicosis does not receive appropriate treatment, his illness turns into the last severe form. With this form, the patient has a strong exhaustion and weakening of the body, as well as a serious dysfunction of almost all organs, sometimes even irreversible.
Signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis
Thyrotoxicosis, and its symptoms in women are characterized by a vivid clinical picture. First of all, with this disease there is a metabolic disorder, which is manifested by severe weight loss. At the same time, the appetite is significantly increased and the total caloric intake of the patient usually increases.
The patient is also concerned about constant thirst. Similar symptoms of thyrotoxicosis are combined with diarrhea, frequent urination, abdominal pain, vomiting. Body temperature is usually slightly elevated.
The disease causes persistent dysfunction in the cardiovascular system. The patient is worried about tachycardia and constantly fast heartbeat, which does not depend on physical activity. Also, a characteristic feature is an increase in systolic blood pressure in combination with a reduced diastolic pressure.
In thyrotoxicosis, there are changes from the side of the CNS.The patient notices the increased nervous excitability, restlessness, sharp change of mood. These symptoms are combined with rapid fatigue, a violation of memory processes and thinking. There may also be a small tremor.
In some cases there is a peeling of the nail plates. In the field of the thyroid gland, there is a small swelling, which is accompanied by mild pain and discomfort. As a result of an increase in the thyroid gland, the tone of the voice, breathing, is broken, it becomes difficult for the patient to swallow.
Effect of thyrotoxicosis on pregnancy
Most often, the disease is diagnosed in the female part of the population. In this case, his clinic is complicated by the fact that in thyrotoxicosis, women often observe infertility and miscarriages of pregnancy.
The cause of infertility in most cases is caused by the fact that thyrotoxicosis disrupts the menstrual cycle, often the phenomenon of anovulation is observed. Women with this disease should be extremely careful about the future pregnancy. It must necessarily be planned.
It is advisable that during the period of probable conception the disease is in remission. In addition, the level of hormones in the blood should be monitored throughout the 9 months. Therefore, a woman must regularly take tests and, if necessary, visit an endocrinologist.
Most drugs that inhibit the production of thyroid hormones penetrate the placental barrier, and affect the health of the fetus. Therefore, if thyrotoxicosis is diagnosed during pregnancy, prescribe drugs that are exceptionally safe for the unborn child.
In the absence of treatment, thyrotoxicosis is fraught with many problems during pregnancy. It can provoke miscarriage or premature birth. Children born in such a case, as a rule, are of low weight and weak immunity. In rare cases, developmental defects and the presence of a disease in a newborn are possible.
Treatment of thyrotoxicosis
Therapy of thyrotoxicosis is carried out only after confirmation of the diagnosis with the help of thyroid hormone( T3 and T4) and ultrasound examination of thyroid. In the overwhelming majority of cases, conservative treatment is prescribed.
In rare cases, thyrotoxicosis is recommended for treatment with radioactive iodine. With this method of treatment, iodine isotopes accumulate in the thyroid gland and eventually destroy them. As a result, fewer cells produce less hormones.
Despite its effectiveness, this method is quite dangerous, since it can cause many complications, the most dangerous of which is hypothyroidism, which is characterized by a pathological decrease in the functions of the thyroid gland.
Operative treatment with thyrotoxicosis is rarely used. Usually, it is used if conservative therapy does not work, and if there are tumors, excessive enlargement of the thyroid gland, which squeezes the organs near it. During surgery, the surgeon removes either the entire thyroid gland, or nodes and some part of the organ.
Complications of the disease
In the absence of treatment thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid leads to severe consequences.
One of these is a thyrotoxic crisis, which under certain circumstances threatens the patient's life. In this condition, the body temperature rises significantly, the heart rate increases to 200 beats per minute, a person falls into a febrile state, and problems arise from the central nervous system. In such a situation, a person needs immediate medical attention, otherwise the thyrotoxic crisis can result in a fatal outcome.
Probably the heart system suffers most from thyrotoxicosis. As a result of this disease, a person may have atrial fibrillation, it eventually leads to heart failure - a serious illness from which the patient is at risk of dying.
Prophylaxis and prognosis
The prognosis for thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid gland is usually positive, however only if the patient follows the recommendations of the doctor and regularly takes the necessary medications.
Prevention of the disease consists, first of all, in the timely detection of the first signs of thyrotoxicosis and take adequate measures for its treatment. Particularly attentive to their health should be people who have cases of the disease, because it is proved that the propensity to thyrotoxicosis is very often inherited.
Preventative measures in thyrotoxicosis include self-observance of proper nutrition. People who have a tendency to a similar disease, it is recommended to exclude from their diet food that excites the central nervous and cardiovascular systems of the body. The list of banned products includes alcohol, caffeinated drinks, chocolate, fatty foods, dishes made with a large number of spices.
Also, patients are encouraged to adhere to sleep and rest. For such people, heavy physical labor, night shift work is not suitable. In addition, it is useful to them to avoid strong stresses and emotions in everyday life.
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