• Cyst of thyroid gland: symptoms, treatment, causes, consequences

    Cyst of the thyroid gland - surrounded by a capsule, a hollow formation with a liquid content is in most cases of a benign nature.

    In other words, it is a vial whose walls are lined with an epithelium that produces a liquid. Of all endocrinological diseases, about 3-5% is accounted for by the cyst of the thyroid gland.

    Types of cystic formations

    Before the diagnosis is made and the treatment is prescribed, the physician should understand with what cyst he is dealing, since such depressions in the gland tissues are different:

    1. 1) Simple or true cysts are cavities that are incapsules and contain a liquid, the composition of which is divided into colloidal and serous. Characterized by good quality and rare occurrence.
    2. 2) Cystadenoma, or cystic alteration of thyroid nodules. It appears due to circulatory disorders and developing tissue necrosis. The cavity of the cyst is filled with both serous fluid and blood. The walls consist of the tissues of the knot that formed it. This is a secondary pathology and according to statistics about 30% of all nodes gradually degenerate into cystic formations.
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    3. 3) Cysts that are indirectly related to the thyroid gland, because they are located in the immediate vicinity of it. These include the formation that occurs in the process of embryogenesis, that is, congenital. There are also cystic teratomas, cysts that appear as a result of helminthic invasion, cysts of parathyroid glands. It should be said that this is a slightly different disease, but they should be mentioned, as they are often confused with the cysts of the thyroid gland.

    Causes of thyroid cyst

    Why does the thyroid cyst develop, and what is it? As a result of wear of tissues, loss of their elasticity, and also due to a breach of the configuration of the gland, there appear altered cavities, in which a gel-like substance, a colloid, accumulates. If the outflow of fluid is disturbed, its accumulation takes place with the subsequent formation of the thyroid cyst.

    Speaking about the reasons for their appearance is unambiguous to say something difficult. In many cases, they are provoked by heredity, poor ecology, and injuries.

    Among the main reasons presumably can be identified:

    • thyroid disease( thyroiditis);
    • Nerve Overvoltage;
    • malignant tumors;
    • iodine deficiency;
    • microburn;
    • intoxication;
    • infectious processes;
    • hormonal imbalance;
    • hyperplasia or dystrophy of the gland follicles;
    • congenital pathology.

    Symptoms of thyroid cyst

    If the cyst of the thyroid gland does not grow, it may not disturb at all, but often the neoplasm increases, disrupting the functioning of the thyroid gland.

    As the pathological process progresses, the underlying blood vessels and organs begin to be squeezed next to each other, which is manifested by certain symptoms. These include:

    • hoarseness;
    • complicated swallowing( dysphagia);
    • tickling in the throat;
    • shortness of breath;
    • dilated cervical veins;
    • feeling lump in the throat;
    • painful discomfort in the area of ​​the cyst;
    • enlarged lymph nodes;
    • temperature increase( rare);
    • causeless headache;
    • feeling of suffocation;
    • visual change of the neck line.
    I must say that the symptoms do not need to be permanent. They may appear intermittently, since it is natural for the thyroid cyst to spontaneously disappear and also to appear unexpectedly. The signs that cysts manifest themselves largely depend on the type of neoplasms and on their size.

    Diagnosis of the thyroid cyst

    Cysts of the thyroid gland are diagnosed by a physician-endocrinologist palpatorially, but in order to determine the localization and differentiation, additional research is needed:

    1. 1) Ultrasound. Allows to evaluate the structure of the cystic wall, determine the volume of fluid and the nature of the cyst blood supply.
    2. 2) Fine needle biopsy. It allows to understand, from what cells the iron consists. During the procedure, they are selected for a cytological examination using a special syringe with a needle.
    3. 3) Magnetic resonance imaging.
    4. 4) Thyroid scintigraphy. This method of functional imaging does not give such a clear image as MRI, but with its help you can get very valuable information about the functional activity of the tissue.
    5. 5) Blood test for hormones( T3, T4, AT to TG, TTG).
    6. 6) Angiography. The method involves examining the vascular structures of the gland.
    7. 7) Pneumography is performed to detect possible metastasis and ingrowth into nearby tissues.
    Additional diagnostic methods include laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy. Laryngoscopy is performed to assess the condition of the larynx and vocal cords in the event that the cystic formation compresses the neck. Bronchoscopy is a similar study, but here the degree of tracheal injury is assessed.

    Treatment of thyroid cyst

    If the cystic formation does not increase, then there is no danger and requires only periodic passive observation from a specialist. The thyroid cyst is treated on condition of its increase, since large sizes disrupt the functioning of the organ. Therapeutic actions can be both conservative and operational.

    In our time, cysts are being treated with low-traumatic methods to avoid additional complications. This includes such a modern method of treatment as sclerotherapy. Its essence lies in the fact that under the control of ultrasound, the cyst is pierced and injected into place of the evacuated liquid alcohol, which destroys the epithelium and glues the walls of the cavity. Sometimes the procedure must be repeated several times.

    It is necessary to stop also on one more non-surgical method of treatment of a thyroid gland cyst. It is a question of laser coagulation, or local hyperthermia, conducted under local anesthesia.

    Under the action of a diode laser, local heating of the affected area is performed, which causes the destruction of the protein and the destruction of the tumor, partially or in its entirety. This procedure, as well as the previous one, is carried out under the supervision of ultrasound, so that nearby tissues and blood vessels are not damaged. Without surgery, you can treat cysts up to 4 cm in diameter.

    When cysts with small volumes are allowed to use hormonal thyroid drugs, but, nevertheless, doctors prefer in such cases to recommend iodine drugs and iodine-containing diet.

    With frequent and rapid recurrences after sclerotherapy, as well as with impressive sizes of cysts, surgical intervention is indicated. There are several types of radical treatment:

    • hemistrumectomy, when one portion of the gland is removed;
    • bilateral subtotal strumectomy( elimination of part of the gland);
    • removal of the whole gland with fatty tissue and lymph nodes that surround it( with malignant cysts).
    Surgical treatment is more traumatic, with a painful effect, leaving behind cosmetic defects and a high risk of complications, a method of solving the problem, but sometimes it is the only possible one.


    For benign cysts of the thyroid gland, the prognosis is usually favorable, but it is not excluded that the cyst may reappear.

    If there is a malignant process, then everything depends on the presence of metastases, as well as on their number and localization. If there is no metastasis, the probability of a favorable outcome as a result of the treatment is quite high.

    If metastases were detected, then complete removal of the gland with lymph nodes is indicated. Very often patients after such a radical treatment can not speak, because it is usually impossible to prevent damage to the vocal cords.

    Prevention of thyroid cyst

    Prevention of the thyroid gland is primarily dependent on socioeconomic factors, and it should be carried out at the state level.

    You can reduce the risk of pathology by adhering to certain rules:

    • it is necessary to monitor the daily intake of iodine salts in the body taking into account physiological norms;
    • to minimize stay under the sunlight in the summer;
    • should not be supercooled or overheated;
    • to control the hormonal background;
    • to eat safe, easily digestible and iodine-containing foods( shrimps, walnuts, sea kale);
    • consult the endocrinologist once every six months;
    • pass the ultrasound;
    • in a timely manner to identify and treat thyroid disorders;
    • you need to monitor the weight;
    • to avoid traumatic situations;
    • radiation in the neck;
    • physiotherapy procedures;
    • inflammatory diseases;
    • excessive loads in sports( especially women);
    • does not engage in self-medication.
    Without the thyroid gland the body can not function fully, as it participates in many processes occurring in it. Therefore, these preventive measures are very important in preventing the development of not only cysts, but also many other diseases of this body. This is especially relevant in connection with the rapidly deteriorating environmental situation.

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