• Causes, symptoms, treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recommendations for diabetics

    Type 2 diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system, in which the process of insulin production in the pancreas is reduced. Insulin is responsible for the absorption of sugar( glucose) by cells as an energy source. As a result of the disease in the blood and urine sharply increases the sugar content, which adversely affects the condition of microcapillaries.

    Why does diabetes develop?

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus takes the third place in the world for reasons of mortality, giving way only to cardiovascular and oncological diseases. The causes of type 2 are not fully understood, but it has been proven that a large role( up to 80%) in the development of diabetes mellitus is played by such risk factors as overweight( obesity) and heredity.

    Distinguish the following causes of the disease:

    • Genetic predisposition.
    • Obesity and overweight.
    • Unbalanced power supply.
    • Stressful situations in large numbers.
    • Myocardial ischemia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis of vessels.
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    • Medication administration( hormone therapy, thiazide diuretics, antitumor drugs).
    • Autoimmune diseases( diseases of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland).
    • Presence of chronic infections and acute viral diseases. Diseases of the pancreas( acute and chronic).
    • Pregnancy, during which a balanced diet is disturbed.
    • Chronic alcoholism and alcohol abuse.
    • Decreased physical activity and sedentary lifestyle.
    • Hormonal imbalance and diseases of the endocrine system.
    • Age is more than 40 years. The more age, the higher the risk of getting diabetes.

    Normally, insulin is produced by cells of the pancreas, or rather - by the cells of Langerhans. Insulin as a hormone plays a big role in all kinds of metabolism - carbohydrate, fat, protein. Lack of insulin production may occur in autoimmune diseases, in which the islets of Langerhans are destroyed. In this case, the insulin-dependent diabetes 1 type develops.

    The basis of the etiology of the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 2 is a violation of the absorption of insulin by tissues and cells. That is, in other words speaking, the disease is characterized by the presence of insulin in the blood, but tissues and cells do not digest it.

    Symptoms of the disease

    Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are the following:

    • Increased blood sugar - hyperglycemia. Normally, the sugar content in the blood should not exceed 6.0 mmol / l.
    • Increased thirst - a patient can drink several liters of fluid a day and feel thirsty.
    • Polyuria - increased amount of excreted urine. This urine is sticky, because it contains sugar.
    • Dry mouth.
    • Increased appetite.
    • Sluggish, drowsy condition.
    • Wounds that do not heal well.
    • Weight loss, despite a good appetite.
    • Chronic fatigue syndrome.
    • Itching of the skin.

    The onset of type 2 diabetes is not sudden. As a rule, patients learn by chance that they are sick with the disease when they see a doctor and take the tests. What is the risk of type 2 diabetes? The main danger is that with a slow onset of the disease, it is possible to miss complications of diabetes mellitus, such as precoma and coma.

    The stages of type 2 diabetes are as follows:

    1. Forerunners period - patients often urinate, consume a lot of water, and lose weight, although they do not suffer from an appetite. If at this time do not start treatment, then the appetite falls, and patients suffer from constant nausea.
    2. In the absence of proper treatment may come prekoma. There is not only nausea, but vomiting, there can be a smell of acetone on exhalation, which should alert the patient and those who are nearby!
    3. A coma - the patient can lose consciousness, breathing becomes noisy and rare, blood pressure drops, the tongue becomes dry, and there is a sharp smell of acetone. The consequences of this condition can be deplorable if the patient does not provide timely medical assistance.

    Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is carried out on the basis of complaints, examination by a patient's doctor, as well as blood and urine tests. Among the analyzes are:

    • Blood sugar analysis( performed on an empty stomach).
    • Blood test for sugar after carbohydrate load.
    • Urine analysis for sugar and the content of ketones in it.
    • Blood test for glycosylated hemoglobin.
    • Blood test for insulin.

    In case of diabetes, type 2 complications can occur with late-onset treatment, as well as inadequate use of hypoglycemic agents.

    Complications of type 2 diabetes are as follows:

    • The occurrence of cardiovascular diseases.
    • Atherosclerosis of small blood vessels, which starts from the lower extremities( diabetic foot, trophic ulcers, necrotic processes). ..
    • The defeat of small vessels of the target organs( eyes, heart, kidneys, brain).
    • Decreased vision( diabetic retinopathy).
    • Decreased sensitivity( diabetic neuropathy).
    • Impairment of urine filtration( diabetic nephropathy).
    • Increased pustular lesion of the skin.
    • The appearance of coma and precoma.

    Effective treatment of

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes should be performed only by an endocrinologist, and patients should be registered with endocrinology dispensaries or clinics. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the following requirements must be met:

    • The patient diet should not contain carbohydrates, alcoholic beverages, sweet fruit. It is best to divide the entire volume of food intake into 4-5 receptions, in small portions. Instead of sugar is recommended to use a variety of sugar substitutes.
    • It is necessary to take drugs that reduce the amount of sugar in the blood( a special group of drugs).Tablets from type 2 diabetes are prescribed depending on the sugar content in the blood.
    • With worsening of the disease and progressive course, insulin therapy of type 2 diabetes is prescribed. The product is available in special syringes-pens with a dosimeter, with which you can easily determine the amount of insulin injected.

    People often ask the question - is it possible to cure completely diabetes and how to treat type 2 diabetes with a slight increase in glucose level? It is impossible to cure the disease completely, but with the help of dieting, as well as a healthy lifestyle, one can live long enough with this disease without complications.

    To do this, do not allow the appearance of excess weight, move more, less nervous, eat right. People who have patients with type 2 diabetes at least once a year need to donate blood for sugar and have a consultation with an endocrinologist.

    A small increase in blood sugar levels can be corrected with diet, exercise, balanced nutrition( in the diet more fresh vegetables and fiber).

    Prevention of

    disease Prevention is primarily due to the fact that a person consciously leads a healthy lifestyle, moves a lot, eats properly, and if there is a hereditary factor, the endocrinologist tests regularly.

    It should be remembered that the disease is not so terrible as its consequences( microangiopathy), which cause the defeat of vital organs.

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