• Causes, symptoms and treatment of eye hypotension

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    Lowering intraocular pressure below the norm( less than 14 mm Hg) is called hypotension or hypotension of the eye. The causes of this condition can be both common diseases of the body, and some eye diseases. The course of the disease can be acute or sudden and chronic.

    Causes of hypotension of the eye

    Intraocular pressure is normally formed at the pressure of the vitreous and intraocular fluid on the shell from the inside, thus creating the eye's eye tone. Hypotension of the eye occurs in the following cases:

    • Seal failure after eye surgery.
    • Injections into the posterolumbar space that are used for eye diseases.
    • Perforation( perforation) of the sclera after suturing the upper rectus muscle of the eye.
    • Retinal detachment that occurs in many common diseases.
    • Some medications.
    • Systemic hypotonic conditions that occur with general hypotension and coma.
    • Inflammatory diseases of the iris.
    • Disturbance of the formation of intraocular fluid.
    • Pathology of the vessels of the eye.
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    • Decreased intracranial pressure.
    • Diseases of the endocrine system.

    How does the disease manifest itself?

    Chronic hypotension of the eye occurs in ophthalmic practice much more often than acute conditions. The acute development of the disease can increase the permeability of the eye capillaries and congestion of venous outflow, which can lead to degenerative changes in the eye and acute visual impairment. In chronic course, vision decreases more slowly, but causes atrophic changes and a decrease in eye size.

    The clinical picture of eye hypotension is symptomatic, which includes:

    • Decreased intraocular pressure, which can be determined by palpation or by measurement.
    • Emerging folds of the cornea and chorioretinal folds in the eye area.
    • Detachment of the mesh layer of the fundus. Of the optic nerves.
    • Reducing the anterior chamber of the eye or its size as a whole.
    • Recurrent pain in the eyes.
    • Progressive decline in vision.

    How is the diagnosis made?

    In order to diagnose, a hospital examination is necessary. This examination helps to conduct differential diagnosis in cases when the disease is asymptomatic.

    General and special research methods are used for diagnosis:

    • General tests of urine, blood.
    • Blood for clotting time, RW, sugar, Hbs-antigen.
    • Visometry.
    • Ophthalmoscopy and tonometry.
    • Gonioscopy.
    • Biomicroscopy.
    • Perimetry.

    If the diagnosis is established and there is a danger of atrophic changes in the eye, then the treatment is mandatory.

    Treatment of eye hypotension

    For successful treatment results, it is necessary to first eliminate the cause that could cause this condition:

    • If the cause was an inflammatory process, then it is necessary to eliminate it.
    • In the case of fluid accumulation in the suprachoroidal space, it is necessary to open it and allow the outflow of liquid.
    • If the wound is not sealed after the operation, it is necessary to re-seal the seams and make sure that they are completely sealed.
    • With retinal detachment, perform a surgical operation and drain the choroidal effusion.
    • In the presence of leakage of intraocular fluid through the subconjunctival flap, cryotherapy or laser therapy can be used.
    • With a slight outflow of fluid, you can apply a pressure bandage for a day with a tampon of antibacterial ointment( tetracycline, erythromycin).
    • Drug treatment implies the appointment of vasoconstrictor, means for improving microcirculation, as well as hormonal drugs that enhance the rehabilitation process.
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