Symptoms, causes and types of glaucoma of the eye
Glaucoma is a disease in which the intraocular pressure increases, causing degenerative-dystrophic processes in the eye and optic nerve. The most dangerous complication is blindness, which occurs when there is no or incorrect treatment of glaucoma. It is important to know and determine the symptoms of glaucoma!
The disease is very common in people of old age who are blind and get a degree of disability because they did not recognize the first signs of glaucoma in time.
Signs and symptoms of the disease
Normally, the eye creates a certain eye pressure, which is necessary to ensure a balance between the inflow and outflow of intraocular fluid. As a result of the violation of the outflow of fluid in the eye, the pressure rises, causing a violation of the blood supply and nervous regulation of the vision process.
The first symptoms of eye glaucoma, which may be in the initial stages and should alert patients, are manifested in the form of a fog or fog before the eyes. This state is not permanent, but periodic, especially in the morning hours. If at this stage patients are not alerted and do not seek medical attention for help, the disease progresses, causing the appearance of new symptoms.
Sometimes the disease starts invisibly, and patients complain only of vision impairment, writing off this for age. Suspicion of this disease can occur if patients complain of headaches resembling those with migraines( half the head), and also at the end of the day, note eye fatigue when straining or working on the computer.
In some cases, you may experience iridescent divorces before your eyes, and on closer examination you can see redness of the eyes and dilatation of the vessels of the cornea. Since these symptoms occur in other conditions, in most cases, patients seek help at a stage when irreversible processes of dystrophic changes of the optic nerve occur.
Diagnosis of the disease is based on patient complaints, as well as on the measurement of intraocular pressure. With the help of special equipment, computer diagnostics of the condition of the fundus, vessels and optic nerve, based on which the degree and stage of glaucoma, and its shape are determined. This is necessary in order to choose a method of treatment and determine the prognosis of the disease.
The signs of glaucoma that confirm the diagnosis include:
- Increased pressure in the eyes( one or two sides).
- Decreased visual acuity.
- Dystrophic degenerative changes in the vessels of the fundus and optic nerve.
- Impairment of peripheral vision.
Doctors-ophthalmologists distinguish several stages of the development of the disease, the development of which is accompanied by various symptoms and visual impairment. These include:
- The initial stage in which the symptoms of glaucoma may not appear or occur periodically.
- Stage of development of the disease, in which there is a complete clinical picture of the disease.
- Critical or borderline stage when there are all signs and symptoms of the disease.
- Terminal stage, when blindness or sharp vision decreases.
Forms and types of glaucoma
All types of this ailment have similar symptoms, but in some cases may differ in the course of the disease and the development of complications.
The most common forms are:
- Open angle glaucoma is a common and common form that is named after the open angle between the iris and the cornea of the eye, through which a slow flow of liquid occurs. Since the liquid, though with difficulty, but still slowly flows, the disease passes without symptoms and for many years does not bother the patient. The only symptom of this form is a decreased vision. Open-angle form is also called a "silent sight thief", as patients seek help in later stages, when it is almost impossible to restore vision.
- Closed-angle - occurs less frequently than an open-ended form, and is characterized by a closed angle of the anterior chamber of the eye, through which the outflow of intraocular fluid is impossible. Symptoms of this condition develops sharply, sometimes against a background of complete health, and signs appear because the outflow of fluid at some point abruptly stops, causing acute headaches and other symptoms of glaucoma. In such cases urgent help and surgical treatment is shown so that the patient does not lose sight.
In addition, there are congenital forms of glaucoma, which are characterized by the appearance of signs in childhood. The cause of such forms of the disease is the pathology of the eye or the presence of tumors in the eye area.
There is also a form of glaucoma, which occurs without symptoms and increases eye pressure. This form was called normotensive, the causes of which are unknown. Nevertheless, atrophy of the optic nerve occurs even with normal intraocular pressure and is detected accidentally, with a preventive examination.
Can glaucoma be cured? The answer is one - the earlier a patient turns to for medical help and begins treatment, the more likely that the pressure inside the eye can be normalized and stop the process of optic nerve atrophy.