• Conjunctivitis in adults: symptoms and treatment tactics

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    Conjunctiva is a shell of the eye, covering not only the proteins of the eyes, but also partially the eyelid.

    It consists of a cylindrical epithelium. Conjunctivitis is characterized by the fact that this shell of the eye becomes inflamed.

    This can occur for various reasons, and their precise establishment will help to carry out targeted and effective treatment.

    Causes of

    The following types of conjunctivitis in adults are distinguished according to the etiological( causative) principle:

    1. 1) Infectious - is caused by pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.
    2. 2) Allergic - develops in patients with hereditary predisposition when exposed to various allergens.
    3. 3) Dystrophic - there is a lesion of the conjunctiva as a result of disturbance of metabolic processes.
    Thus, the main causes of conjunctivitis in adults are the following:

    1. 1) Bacteria( chlamydia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, gonococci, streptococci).
    2. 2) Viruses( adenovirus, influenza virus, herpes virus).
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    4. 3) Fungi of several species( candida, actinomycetes, aspergillus).
    5. 4) Contact with allergens in the eyes, in the role of which can be contact lenses, substances in the air, drugs.
    6. 5) Concomitant pathological processes that disrupt the normal metabolism of cells lining the conjunctival membrane.
    There are certain predisposing factors that can lead to the development of conjunctivitis in adults. These factors include:

    1. 1) Infrequent hand washing, which contributes to infection of the eyes.
    2. 2) Face washing with non-flowing water.
    3. 3) Otolaryngological infections and dental diseases. In this case, microorganisms can get into a conjunctiva with a blood stream.

    Symptoms of conjunctivitis in adults

    Symptoms of conjunctivitis in adults can be quite diverse. They are determined by the development of an inflammatory reaction, which is manifested by the following symptoms:

    • redness of the eyeball;
    • puffiness of the eyelids;
    • pain caused by blinking;
    • sensation of sand or burning sensation in the eyes;
    • pathological discharge from the conjunctival cavity, most often purulent;
    • increased susceptibility of light;
    • lacrimation;
    • blurred vision due to edema of the conjunctival membrane.
    However, each kind of conjunctivitis has certain characteristics of clinical manifestation.

    So, if the pathological process is associated with the ingestion of staphylococci or Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the eye, then in the clinical picture comes the presence of a purulent discharge. In the case of chlamydial infection, follicles or papillae appear on the conjunctiva.

    Diagnosis of conjunctivitis in adults

    Additional diagnostic methods are required to establish a definitive diagnosis. They also make it possible to clarify the nature of the disease, which is necessary for conducting targeted etiotropic treatment.

    The main diagnostic tests that are performed with this disease are:

    1. 1) Determination of causative bacteria with an assessment of their sensitivity to antibiotics( bacteriological study).This study is especially valuable in cases where antibiotics were repeatedly prescribed, but the therapeutic result was not achieved. Most likely, this is due to their insensitivity to the tools used.
    2. 2) Polymerase chain reaction. It allows us to identify specific sequences of DNA or RNA that are characteristic of certain microorganisms that caused the development of conjunctivitis in adults.
    3. 3) Immunogram for the diagnosis of the allergic process. With its help, it is possible to determine those or other immune disorders, as well as to determine the allergen that led to the development of the disease.
    Conducting these studies is especially indicated with frequent exacerbation of the disease. This will establish the cause of its development, which is often not detected by usual methods. Then it will be clear what to treat conjunctivitis.

    Treatment of conjunctivitis in adults

    Treatment of conjunctivitis in adults is carried out according to a standard scheme, which has long been developed by medical experts due to the high prevalence of this disease.

    So, the therapeutic tactics of treatment for diagnosed conjunctivitis in adults is as follows:

    1. 1) In general, special drops are prescribed depending on the type of conjunctivitis.
    2. 2) In the most common bacterial type, Floxal drops or a 20% solution of Albucida are most often used.
    3. 3) The administration of antibiotics, which is performed depending on the causative microorganism and its sensitivity. Staphylococcal, gonococcal and chlamydial infection is treated by the administration of Erythromycin ointment. Infections that are caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa require the administration of a tetracycline ointment. Viral conjunctivitis is an indication for the use of immunostimulating drugs, and in case of herpetic infection it is necessary to use Acyclovir.
    4. 4) Administration of hormonal or non-hormonal( non-steroidal) anti-inflammatory drugs to prevent damage to eye structures. The more pronounced the inflammatory process, the higher the likelihood of using hormonal drugs.
    5. 5) Artificial tear preparations are prescribed to alleviate the symptoms of dryness of the eyeball, which especially develop with dystrophic conjunctivitis and in the case of a chronic course of the inflammatory process.
    Allergic conjunctivitis requires a different approach to treatment. The main place in treatment is occupied by antihistamines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, in order to avoid secondary infection, additional antibacterial drugs are indicated. The duration of their use should not exceed 7 days.

    In dystrophic conjunctivitis, the use of metabolic drugs is indicated. Also, vitamins, which are used both locally and systemically, can also benefit.

    Prevention of conjunctivitis

    Preventive measures for conjunctivitis in adults are as follows:

    • use of clean water for face washing;
    • frequent hand washing, especially when touching the eyes;
    • warning of possible contact with allergens;
    • wearing only correctly selected contact lenses( this can not be done without the help of an ophthalmologist);
    • early detection and treatment of eye diseases, which can lead to various metabolic disorders and development of the dystrophic process;
    • timely detection and treatment of otolaryngological and dental diseases.
    Summing up all of the above, it should be noted that conjunctivitis in adults is common enough. This is one of the most common diseases in ophthalmology. Symptoms of this disease are bright enough and on their basis it is possible to diagnose.

    However, some patients are shown additional research methods. This is necessary for the appointment of an effective etiotropic treatment. It depends on the specific type of disease - infectious, allergic or dystrophic.

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