Causes and Diagnosis of High Blood Sugar
The reasons permeate our whole life, thanks to them we can foresee the development of events or understand the consequences of phenomena. So with human health. Knowing the cause is necessary both in order to build effective treatment, and in order to develop preventive measures.
What are the causes of increased blood sugar?
In this case, the most important thing is not to make premature conclusions and not to diagnose diabetes, because the causes of increased blood sugar can be divided into two groups:
Group of physiological causes
With intensive physical exertion, prolonged and / or intense mental work, after consuming foods rich in carbohydrates, the sugar content in the blood increases. This is a natural result of a simple physiological process. After a certain time, the level will become normal.
Group of reasons for the short-term increase in the sugar level
A short increase in the sugar level can also be caused by the following conditions:
- Severe pain syndrome;
- Myocardial infarction, acute;
- Epileptic seizure;
- Severe attack of angina;
- Serious liver damage, resulting in glucose entering the blood from glycogen, can not be synthesized to the fullest;
- Craniocerebral trauma, in which the division of the intermediate brain is damaged - the hypothalamus, which controls the activity of the human endocrine system;
- Surgical intervention is the operation of the stomach or duodenum, resulting in an accelerated absorption of glucose into the blood from the intestine;
- Stress conditions that cause the release of hormones into the blood. Hormones in turn increase the level of glucose in the blood due to its release from the liver, where it is stored in a modified state. The body responds in a similar way to stimuli, since carbohydrates are the main source of energy and provide the ability to react and resist.
In addition, a short-term increase may be due to the use of certain medications, for example, glucocorticoids, thiazide diuretics, certain psychotropic substances, oral contraceptives, diuretics. With long-term use of such drugs, diabetes can develop.
In all cases of this group in the normal course of the post-operation period or recovery period, the blood sugar will decrease to the normal level. If not, then this is already an alarm signal, and it is worth a complete examination.
Group of causes that determine the long-term increase in sugar level
Long-term high blood sugar, accompanied by the excretion of glucose in the urine( glucosuria), is called diabetes mellitus. Why does blood sugar increase in this case? The question can not be answered without understanding the types of diabetes.
So, it is divided according to the causes of the occurrence, and can be primary or secondary.
Primary and secondary diabetes
Primary diabetes is of the first and second type.
Diabetes of the first type is caused by the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas. He is also due to hereditary predisposition. But, as specialists say, it is not a decisive factor in the development of the disease. So, with a mother's disease, the probability of the disease in her child is about 1-2%.If the father is sick, then this indicator is already increased to 5%.
Type 2 diabetes is the result of poor cell sensitivity to insulin. It is because of a similar cause of the disease on the question of how to reduce blood sugar - we will answer in the following way. Initially, the patient should take tablets medicines. If these actions do not lead to a result and the condition does not improve, then a decision is made to administer insulin intravenously, as with type 1 diabetes.
Secondary diabetes is caused by a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. Why does blood sugar increase in this case? Because of the various diseases in which contrinsular hormones function incorrectly.
Read more about the contrainsular hormones
Contransult hormones are hormones, the action of which is the opposite of the action of insulin. If it reduces the level of glucose in the blood, then, on the contrary, they are called to raise the level. Therefore, if they fail to function, when they excessively increase the level of glucose in the blood, insulin will not be able to cope with its tasks, and secondary diabetes mellitus may occur.
These hormones include:
- growth hormone, or a growth hormone produced by the gland of internal secretion - the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain. The peak of its ejection is at night. It also specifically raises blood glucose levels in the morning. So, the amount of insulin to be injected should be increased at this particular time. Dysfunction of growth hormone is observed in such diseases as gigantism, acromegaly;
- epinephrine, produced by the adrenal medulla. It releases glucose from glycogen deposited in the liver and promotes the production of glucose from proteins. With a disease such as adrenal medulla, the activity of the hormone increases, and so does the amount of glucose in the blood;
- thyroxine, triiodothyronine - thyroid hormones. With its increased function, hormones in a larger quantity receive blood, which again increases the level of glucose in the blood;
- is a hormone glucagon produced by the cells of the pancreas. It acts as a signal system: as a result of its action, glucose is released and enters the blood from glycogen stored as a reserve.
Its malfunction is observed in tumors - glucagonomes.
Here we have uncovered the reasons for the increase in blood sugar levels. Apparently, in some cases it is the result of a simple reaction of the organism that does not have a pathology or the consequence of its vital activity, in others it is a symptom of a serious disease.
So be attentive to yourself and your health and get to the right moment at the right time!