Jul 06, 2018
The extreme degree of hypoglycemic state of is a hypoglycemic coma. It develops in response to a rapid decrease in the sugar content in the blood due to the acute energy starvation of neurons of the brain. Most often occurs with the introduction of an excessive dose of insulin or sulfonamide drugs( especially in combination with salicylates, alcohol) against the background of inadequate intake of carbohydrates with food. Dysfunction of the diet is usually found when the patient forgets or is unable to take food before the maximum effect of the injected hypoglycemic preparation( insulin) or takes it in insufficient quantities. Periodic hypoglycemic states of varying severity occur in almost every patient receiving insulin.
The appearance of hypoglycemic coma in patients with diabetes mellitus is facilitated by renal and hepatic insufficiency;an attack can be triggered by intense physical exertion, mental trauma.
A hypoglycemic condition usually occurs quite sharply, with the appearance of a feeling of general weakness, a feeling of hunger, trembling of fingers, sweating, sometimes headache, dizziness, palpitations.
Typical for hypoglycemic attack are paresthesia of the face( numbness of the lips, tongue, chin) and diplopia( double vision before the eyes).In most cases, this period lasts long enough for an experienced patient who has already experienced such episodes to take the necessary measures( urgently eat a piece of sugar, bread, candy, and drink sweet tea).If this is not done, then the excitement grows, the person sweats profusely, he shows signs of disorientation, inadequate behavior. Often the patient becomes malicious, aggressive, sometimes hallucinates, makes meaningless acts, cries, categorically refuses to eat, inject glucose. During this period, he gives the impression of a drunk, and often gets into the police or medical sobering-up station. If hypoglycemia remains unrecognized here and is not eliminated in a timely manner, clonic or tonic convulsions, sometimes a real epileptic fit, subsequently arise. Psychomotor agitation is replaced by general apathy, deafness, drowsiness, then a coma develops.
For hypoglycemia associated with a decrease in blood sugar in the blood with diabetes, are characterized by: a sharp hunger, shaking, weakness, sweating. Then there is excitement, headache, general anxiety, twitching of the facial muscles, profuse sweating, dilated pupils, slowing of the pulse and confusion of consciousness.
The manifestations of hypoglycemia are very similar to the symptoms of severe alcohol intoxication, but without the smell of alcohol!
The main signs of hypoglycemic and diabetic coma
First aid to
The patient should urgently give to eat two or three pieces of sugar, drink sweet warm tea or strong coffee. If you do not have anything on hand, give a piece of white bread. If you have a vial of glucose in your home medicine cabinet, give two ampoules of 40% glucose solution. If at the beginning of the development of hypoglycemia, no help is provided, the patient falls into a coma.