• Sugar and sweeteners

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    The more developed the country, the more sugar consumes its population. In highly developed countries, the food industry produces a large number of creams, ice cream, cakes, cakes, sweets, soft drinks. Scientists have calculated that 1 g of sugar during cleavage gives 4 kcal. But in fact each of us eats daily not 1, but 100-200 g of sugar. So how many extra kilocalories do we inject into the body daily? The usual sugar consists of equal parts of glucose and fructose. In the process of its splitting after ingestion with food, the resulting glucose is rapidly absorbed and, accordingly, quickly enters the blood, which sharply increases the level of sugar in the blood.

    The world is constantly searching for artificial or vegetable sources of sweet taste. Alternative sources of sweet are called sweeteners - they are food substances that cause mouthfeel of sweetness in your mouth, but at the same time do not contain harmful high-calorie substances like sugar. To date, many sa-substitutes have been developed and they all have individual indications for use.

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    All sugar substitutes are divided into two groups:

    1. Caloric, when they are digested in the body, energy is generated.

    2. Non-caloric - do not have energy value, with their assimilation by the body energy is not released.

    The first group includes sorbitol, xylitol, fructose. All of them are made from vegetable raw materials. Since the consumption of 1 g of these sweeteners forms 3,5-4 kcal of energy, that is, like ordinary sugar, they must be taken into account when calculating the daily caloric content of the diet, and obese patients to limit consumption. Nevertheless, the purpose of these sweeteners is preferable to sugar for the following reasons:

    caloric sweeteners can satisfy the body's need for sweetness when consumed in the amount of 20-30 g instead of 40-60 grams of sugar( daily requirement of a healthy person);

    caloric sweeteners, unlike sugar, are slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and therefore do not significantly affect the blood sugar level;

    unlike glucose, their assimilation by the cells of the body does not require the participation of insulin.

    Sorbitol was first extracted from the mountain ash in 1872 by the French chemist J. Brussino and in her honor called sorbitol( mountain ash in Latin - sorbus).It is non-toxic, sweet to taste, does not cause rapid changes in blood sugar levels, does not provoke additional insulin production by the pancreas. At the same time, it is problematic for the teeth.

    Xylitol as a sugar substitute in comparison with sorbitol has some advantages: it is sweeter and therefore satisfies the need for a sweet less quantity;xylitol is less toxic, possessing, like sorbitol, choleretic and laxative effect, it causes dyspeptic phenomena less often and less pronounced. Xylitol is not recommended for use at night, as it enhances the secretion of urine and can disturb sleep. Daily intake of xylitol should not exceed 30 g.

    For diabetics, the food industry produces sweets, wafers, biscuits, marmalade and other products with sorbitol or xylitol instead of sugar. At home with these sugar substitutes, you can cook flour products, jam, compotes and other sweet dishes. Xylitol and sorbitol is twice as sweet as sugar, and accordingly their daily doses are half as much.

    Fruit sugar - fructose, which is twice as sweet as sugar, belongs to caloric sweeteners, but its assimilation takes place without the participation of insulin.1 g of it gives 3.8 kcal. It is found in berries, fruits, honey, absorbed in the intestines twice as slow as glucose, so it does not create high concentrations of sugar in the blood. In the radar of countries before the sports competitions, announcements are made that before the performance, sugar can not be eaten in any way, and it is better to take a tablespoon of fructose, which ensures a normal energy charge. The fact is that sugar, giving together with energy a violent surge of blood sugar level, forces the pancreas to work hard, and then provokes a decline in the energy carrier-glycogen in the body, which is not indifferent to the work of muscles. Fructose evenly regulates blood sugar levels during exercise. For a day it is recommended to use no more than 30 g. It is not recommended to use fructose as a sweetener for a long time, since it negatively affects fat and protein metabolism and this affects vascular complications in diabetes mellitus.

    The second group of sugar substitutes includes as-desks( sladix) and saccharin. These substances almost do not give calories to the body.

    Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar, one tablet of the drug is equivalent to one teaspoon of sugar. At boiling loses its properties.

    Saccharin is 375 times sweeter than sugar, readily soluble in water. At boiling gets an unpleasant bitter taste. Daily intake should not exceed 1 - 1.5 tablets. Approximately saccharin tablet replaces a teaspoon of sugar. It is not recommended to use saccharin for children, as well as for diseases of the liver and kidneys.

    Acesulfame potassium - 200 times sweeter than sugar. One packet corresponds to two teaspoons of sugar, it can be boiled. It is not recommended for use in kidney failure, adrenal insufficiency.

    Cyclamate - 30 times sweeter than sugar, has an unpleasant aftertaste. Contraindicated in diseases of the kidneys and bladder.

    Susley - contain in one tablet 40 mg of cyclamate and 9.5 mg of saccharin.1 tablet is equal to a teaspoon of sugar.

    All of the above drugs are not recommended during pregnancy. With the aim of sweetening the food, it is also possible to use licorice preparations of naked( licorice), stevia and some other plants. To take a fancy to sugar substitutes should not, first, in connection with adverse reactions and contraindications, and secondly, because of the danger of getting used to sweets and, in the absence of a substitute, to use sugar. If, in spite of diet and exercise, glucose in the blood remains elevated, then there is a need for taking hypoglycemic preparations.