• A View on Vegetarianism

    In the nutrition system, it is important, according to many nutritional scientists, to have vegetarianism that excludes or restricts the consumption of animal products. The origins of vegetarianism go back to antiquity. By the degree of restriction of animal food, vegetarians are divided into Old Vegetarians and Young Vegetarians. Stavrogetarians prohibit the use of any products of animal origin - meat, fish, milk, eggs, animal fats. Mladovegetarians exclude from the diet only meat products and allow the consumption of dairy products and eggs. Common to all vegetarians is the exclusion from the diet of foods obtained by slaughtering animals.

    Modern science of nutrition recommends the use of mixed diets in the diet, including both animal and vegetable products, including various types of meat. The assertion of vegetarians that products of plant origin can serve as a good source of proteins is erroneous. Proteins of plant origin are less easily digestible, since they are difficult to digest enzymes. Most plant proteins are poorly balanced in amino acid composition, which reduces their nutritional value.

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    Proteins of animal origin contain especially valuable essential amino acids that can not be synthesized in the body and must come with products. Insufficiency of animal proteins adversely affects the central nervous system, the function of endocrine glands, liver function. In addition, animal products are suppliers of vitamins A, D, etc.

    Without taking vegetarianism as the main direction in human nutrition, it is necessary to note some rational provisions of this teaching. Vegetable products, especially vegetables and fruits, are the main suppliers for the body of many irreplaceable biologically active substances - vitamins, mineral salts, including trace elements, organic acids, easily digestible sugars, pectins, fiber. Regular consumption of vegetables and fruits reduces the cholesterol content and helps to remove it from the body, which is important for preventing atherosclerosis. They contain substances that strengthen the walls of blood vessels. In combination with vegetables, protein, fat and carbohydrate foods are more easily digested. A well-balanced diet with an amino acid composition can also be formulated without meat based on a combination of plant foods with dairy products and eggs. Short-term appointment of such a vegetarian diet is used for certain cardiovascular diseases, for hypertension and atherosclerosis, for kidney disease and urine acid diathesis, for a number of gastrointestinal diseases. In addition, the vegetable diet prevents the conversion of carbohydrates into fats, normalizes the processes of blood coagulation and prevents bleeding. In green vegetables, a lot of substances that promote blood formation and maintain a normal blood composition. In medical nutrition, a vegetable diet is widely used during unloading days against a background of mixed balanced nutrition.

    In recent years, in a number of countries, based on albuminous substances from plant materials, products have begun to emulate imitating various types of meat. In particular, canned products are produced from so-called soy meat, products from protein concentrates, obtained from leaves of plants and algae.


    If a person takes a long time without food, and even less without hot food, takes food at different times, hurrying up, chewing on it badly, such a prolonged disruption of the diet will certainly affect the health status. Such people prematurely grow old, they have pain in the epigastric region, gastritis, and even ulcer of the stomach. The habit of eating late and densely deprives the gastrointestinal tract of proper rest, in connection with which the motor function of the stomach is disrupted, its secretory activity decreases, and the digestibility of food deteriorates. A crowded stomach makes it hard for the heart to work.

    The basis of a rational diet is observance of a constant time of reception of food. In this case, the digestive system is always prepared for the load, a reflex is developed to isolate the enzymes of the gastric juice. The most rational is 4 - 5, at least 3 meals a day, with 4 - 5-way intervals. The practice of two meals a day is unacceptable. With such nutrition, the intervals between meals are prohibitively large, as a result of which the appetite is brought to a high degree of severity, to the apparent sensation of hunger. As a result, excessive consumption of food takes place with all the ensuing consequences: the stomach gradually stretches, its capacity increases, the body weight increases, sclerotic changes occur in the vessels.

    It is extremely important to distribute food by energy significance. With 4 meals a fairly hearty breakfast is recommended, containing about 30% of all calories in a daily diet. Exit to work without breakfast is unacceptable. The second breakfast, taken at the third hour of work, should be easy and account for 15% of the energy potential of the diet. Lunch should not exceed 35% of the energy value of the diet. With more abundant food, drowsiness occurs with a significant decrease in working capacity. During the dinner, the remaining 20% ​​of the daily energy value of the diet is consumed. The last meal should not be later than 1.5-2 hours before bedtime.

    The nature of the dishes is regulated. Per 347

    breakfast should consist of a meat or fish dish with a side dish, a glass of milk, tea or coffee. The second breakfast is tea with a sandwich, a glass of yogurt with a bun. Lunch should be full, include a light snack, a hot first course, the second in the form of a meat or fish or vegetable dish, compote, jelly or fruit. For dinner, it is best to eat dairy, cereal or vegetable dishes. Do not eat at night exciting hot meat dishes, drink strong coffee, cocoa, tea. Recommended milk, sour-milk products, fruits, juices, bakery products.

    The food should be varied. Especially important is the availability in the diet of a large assortment of vegetables, fruits, berries. Salads, fruits, juices, berries should be in the ration of each day. The best side dish is vegetable.

    The temperature of the first dishes should be 73 ° С, the second

    - below 65 ° С, the best temperature for cold appetizers

    - 7 - 14 ° С.

    In any version of the diet, there should be a calm environment when eating, excluding nervousness and haste.

    This is how the encyclopedia "Culture of Nutrition" treats the food intake regime.