Nutritive value of vegetables
Jul 01, 2018
Vegetables play an extremely important role in human nutrition. The nutritional value of vegetable crops is determined by the high content of carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins, active elements, aromatic and mineral substances in a form readily available for digestion. Variety and a different combination of all these components in the composition of vegetable plants determines their taste, color, odor and nutritional value.
The main indicator of the quality of vegetables is their biochemical composition. Vegetable plants contain up to 97 % moisture in the structure, but even a small amount of dry substance present in vegetables, contains many biologically important compounds that are vital for normal functioning of the human organism. The main part of the dry matter in vegetables is carbohydrates, the most important of which are starch and sugars. Especially high content of starch in legumes, potatoes, root crops, sugars are rich in carrots, peas, onions. Sugars are present in vegetables in various forms;Thus, table beet contains mainly sucrose, glucose prevails in cabbage, cucumbers and pumpkin cultures.
The dry vegetable matter also includes fiber, which positively influences the recovery of body forces, and pectic substances, mainly proteins and glucose. Of particular value are natural organic acids, in varying amounts contained in vegetable plants: lemon, apple, tartaric, oxalic and some others. It is organic acids that have a beneficial effect on the taste qualities of vegetables and contribute to their better absorption by the human body. Many vegetable plants, such as onions, garlic, spicy aromatic cultures, contain essential oils that have phytoncidal properties. The phytoncidal effect of onions and garlic from ancient times found its application in folk medicine with the goal of preventing and treating inflammatory and infectious diseases.
Vegetables are also an important source of mineral elements involved in the most important metabolic processes in the human body. Parsley leaves, green peas, onions, cabbage, parsnips are exceptionally rich in phosphorus;leafy vegetables and root vegetables - potassium;salad, spinach, beets, cucumbers and tomatoes - iron;cauliflower, types of salads, spinach, greens - calcium. The most valuable components of vegetables are contained in them in large quantities, various vitamins, vital for human life. The lack of any of the vitamins in the human body can lead to serious disorders of various systems and cause serious illnesses. Vitamins are organic compounds necessary to maintain normal metabolism. They can not be synthesized by the human body in the required quantities and must be supplied to it with food.
Retinol - vitamin A Carotene - provitamin A Thiamine - Vitamin B1 Riboflavin - vitamin B2 Pyridoxine - Vitamin B6 Folate - Vitamin B9 Ascorbic acid - vitamin C. nicotinic acid, niacin - vitamin PP
Vegetables are a major source of replenishment of vitamins in the body. Daily human need for vitamins should be observed to maintain their optimal balanced level in the body and the operation of all systems. For example, the daily dose of satisfying needs of the body for vitamin C is contained in 300 g of ripe tomatoes, 250-300 g of fresh radish, 250 g of fresh cabbage in 80 g dill, in 70 ggreen parsley, in 50 g. sweet pepper.
daily requirement of vitamins, mg
high content of vitamins and their diverse composition makes vegetablesthe most valuable and indispensable food that plays a decisive role in the regulation of amino acid, fat, carbohydrate metabolism in the human body.
Each vitamin performs a very definite function in the process of metabolism in the body and has an individual effect on it.
Vitamin A is involved in redox processes, increases the glycogen content in the heart and liver, and nourishes skin cells provides normal epithelium, cornea, skin, respiratory and digestive tract. The need for vitamin A body can fill due to its predecessor - provitamin A or carotene, contained in the largest quantities in sweet pepper, carrot, parsley, pumpkin.
The content of provitamin A( carotene) in many vegetable crops is small, slightly or completely absent. Here are those vegetable crops that can be considered rich provitamin A
Parsley( greens) 20
Celery( root) 10
Most rich in provitamin A among vegetable crops green and spiknukusovye plants.
Endive, sorrel, spinach, escaril4
Vitamin A is fat-soluble and therefore able to accumulate in the body, creating a certain reserve and remaining in the tissues for up to a year. Therefore, it is important during the summer season to consume plenty of fresh vegetables, rich in carotene.
Vitamin B1, or thiamine, is part of many enzymes that play an important role in the carbohydrate conversion processes, and is thus an active participant in carbohydrate metabolism. Vitamin B1 promotes the regeneration of skin cells and regulates the functioning of the nervous system. Its lack leads to accumulation of toxic products of incomplete oxidation of glucose and an increase in the content of pyruvic acid in tissues, which negatively affects the activity of the nervous system.
The sources of vitamin B1 are legumes and vegetable plants with green leaves, especially spinach.
Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, is responsible for the processing of fats, carbohydrates and proteins in the human body and contributes to their complete combustion during metabolism. Its deficiency in the body reduces the rate of conversion of fats and carbohydrates, worsens digestion of the organism supplied with food protein, disrupts the body's ability to form glycogen in liver tissues, which leads to the appearance of weakness, increased blood sugar, weakened capillary tone, decreased white blood cell count, damage to the skin in the form of emerging cracks, the appearance of eye diseases, especially conjunctivitis. The sources of vitamin B2 are green peas, bean pods, spinach, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, green onions, sweet peppers, and root vegetables of parsley.
Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, plays an important role in the realization of fat and protein metabolism and maintenance of the normal functioning of the nervous system. It promotes the formation of hemoglobin and maintenance of its level in the blood, affects the skin, stimulates the regeneration of skin cells and slows down the aging processes in them. The lack of this vitamin in the body leads to the emergence of serious nervous disorders, increased excitability, the development of various skin diseases and inflammatory processes of the mucous membranes, and is also capable of provoking an accelerated aging process.
The sources of vitamin B6 are cabbage, sweet pepper, green peas, bean pods, sugar corn, horseradish, garlic.
Vitamin B9, or folic acid, has a strong influence on hematopoietic activity in the body, stimulates the maturation of red blood cells and the formation of bone marrow. Its lack leads to anemia( anemia), growth retardation, general weakening of the body. The sources of vitamin B are legumes and vegetable plants with green leaves( parsley, dill, spinach, chicory, watercress, leaf salad), as well as cauliflower, eggplant, zucchini, pumpkin, horseradish.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, helps to maintain the tone and elasticity of the walls of cells and capillaries, increases the elasticity of the skin, is a strong antioxidant in the body, stimulates the body's immune system, tones blood and maintains hemoglobin levels in the blood. The lack of vitamin C in the body leads to a decrease in immunity and resistance of the body to colds and infectious diseases, causes anemia, and in critical cases scurvy, may cause the development of neuroses.The sources of vitamin C are all fresh vegetables to varying degrees, but they are especially rich in sweet peppers, parsley and dill greens, watercress, white cabbage and cauliflower.
Vitamin C content in vegetable cultures( mg / 100 g), up to
Parsley( greens) 290
Vitamin C content in vegetable cultures( mg / 100 g), up to
products Butter kapusta55
Celery( root) 43
Parsley( root) 35
Salad head 25
Cicorn Salad( WHITLOF) 8
Vitamin K is necessary for the body for normal blood clotting, it maintains the healthy state and composition of the blood, the structure and functions of all cells in the body. The lack of vitamin K in the first place affects the state of the blood and its coagulability.
Sources of vitamin K are white cabbage and cauliflower, spinach, tomatoes, especially unripe.
Vitamin PP, or nicotinic acid, is vital to the body for normal liver function. It also improves the secretion and composition of pancreatic juice, normalizes the secretory and motor functions of the stomach. Its constant deficiency in the body leads to disorders of the digestive system of varying severity, causes various skin diseases due to unhealthy liver function.
The sources of the vitamin PP are, first of all, tomatoes, legumes, onions, carrots, vegetables with green leaves, especially spinach.
All vegetables are rich in physiologically important for the body salts of potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus. In the process of digestion, mineral substances form compounds with alkaline properties. Thus, vegetable food helps maintain a slightly alkaline reaction of blood, neutralizes the harmful effect of acidic substances contained in meat, fatty foods and other products, prevents the accumulation of acids in the tissues. The inclusion of vegetables in the diet makes it more harmonious and prevents the emergence of various diseases of the digestive system.
Energy value of vegetable crops( per 100 g of product)
Eggplant24 kcal / 100 kJ
Peas green72 kcal / 301 kJ
Squash 25 kcal / 119 kJ
Cabbage28 kcal / 117 kJ
Cauliflower29 kcal / 121 kJ
Kress salad kcal/ 0 kJ
Carrots37 kcal / 146 kJ
Cucumber 15 kcal / 63 kJ
Pepper sweet( red) 27 kcal / 113 kJ
Parsley( green) 45 kcal / 188 kJ
Parsley( root) 47 kcal / 197 kJ
Tomato19 kcal /79 kJ
Radish 20 kcal / 84 kJ
Radish34 kcal / 142 kJ
Salad14 kcal / 59 kJ
Beetroot table48 kcal / 201 kJ
Celery( greens) 8 kcal / 33 kJ
Celery( root) 31 kcal / 130 kJ
Pumpkin29 kcal / 121 kJ
Dill29 kcal / 127 kJ
Beans32 kcal / 134 kJ
Horseradish 71 kcal / 297 kJ
Spinach21 kcal / 88 kJ Sorrel.28 kcal / 117 kJ
Almost all vegetables are consumed not only in boiled, fried, stewed, baked, canned, but also in raw form, using them to prepare a variety of salads and side dishes, sometimes in the most unexpected combinations. Raw vegetables not exposed to any