Some information about the use of fertilizers
Jul 04, 2018
Doses of organic fertilizers depend on their type and degree of soil cultivation, features of vegetable crops.
When applying mineral fertilizers for vegetable crops, the correct choice of doses is of great practical importance.
9830;When determining the doses of fertilizers to be introduced, the need for plants in nutrients, the soil conditions and the planned crop should be taken into account.
The relation of vegetable crops to the conditions of mineral nutrition is manifested in the consumption( removal) of individual elements and the exactingness to them.
In spring in rows or in wells fertilizer is applied in small doses, including nitrogen( about 20 % total), the rest of the dose is given in the fertilizing.
Mineral fertilizers for kohlrabi cabbage, radish, onion are the most effective ones that contain sulfur( ammonium sulfate, superphosphate).
For potato, tomato, cucumber, beans it is desirable to make chlorine free fertilizers - potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate. Beets, radish, leeks, peas, carrots develop better under the influence of potassium chloride and potassium salt.
Chlorinated fertilizers should be used for celery, asparagus, beetroot, chard and spinach.
Cucumber, cabbage( medium, late) and colored produce higher yields when organic fertilizers such as manure are applied to the soil in large quantities, and carrots, beets, tomatoes, onions - compost or compost mixtures with well-dispersed manure.
It is impossible to overestimate the application rates of fertilizers, as this causes an increase in the concentration of soil solution and leads to a violation of the ratio of minerals. High salt content depresses plants and causes low yields.
The main mineral fertilizers that contribute to a sharp increase in yields of vegetable crops are nitrogen.
Nitrogen fertilizers should be applied in the spring, phosphoric in autumn and spring, potash fertilizers also in autumn and spring.
Nourishing is necessary, creating the right ratio of elements of mineral nutrition in a certain period of growth and development of plants.
On fertile, well-seasoned fertilizer soils, fertilizing is economically more expedient than applying large doses of fertilizers for plowing or digging.
When fertilizing plants should receive no more than 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the whole applied dose of mineral fertilizers.
If there is a lack of microelements in the soil, fertilizing with microfertilizers is carried out.
It is important to take into account the phases of plant growth and their greatest need for nutrients. During the first 30-40 days of development, vegetable crops consume less than 1/10 of the fertilizer needed to form the entire crop. The bulk of fertilizers they use in the next 40-50 days.О Fertilizers applied before planting or sowing must be deepened so that they are not washed out of the soil and are available to plants in subsequent periods of their development.
The so-called slow-acting fertilizers are promising, as for one-time application they are effectively used during the entire growing season and are less toxic.
The maximum effect fertilizer application gives only in combination with other agricultural techniques - selection of the best varieties, proper soil treatment, timely watering, weeding, etc.
These are preparations containing bacteria useful for plants. They improve the nutrition of plants, although they do not contain nutrients. These fertilizers include:
azotobacterin, which is used to treat seeds, tubers and roots of seedlings, improves nitrogen nutrition of plants;
nitragin, used only for processing seeds of legumes, contains bacteria that can assimilate nitrogen from the air;
is a preparation of AMB, consisting of a number of bacteria that decompose humus, forming substances accessible to plants;
phosphorobacterin, containing spores of phosphorous bacteria, which convert organic phosphorus compounds into plant-accessible substances.