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  • Acute bronchitis: symptoms in adults, treatment, causes

    The most common disease in the autumn and winter is acute bronchitis, characterized by an inflammatory process in the respiratory tract of the bronchial tree, accompanied by an increase in secretion and separation of sputum.

    The causative agents of the disease may be biological, physical, chemical or allergic factors.

    Often bronchitis occurs against the background of acute respiratory disease, influenza, angina, pharyngitis, a common cold, acute infections such as pertussis and measles. Acute bronchitis occurs on day 2-3 after the onset of a cold, perspiration in the throat, and hoarseness.

    At the same time, malaise, muscle weakness, chills and fever. Initially, the patient suffers from a dry, debilitating cough, which during the treatment passes into the second phase - a wet cough. The sputum departs, and the body's condition gradually improves. After about 3-4 weeks, the function of the bronchi is restored.

    Causes of acute bronchitis


    In adults, the common cause of acute bronchitis are influenza viruses, rhinoviruses and bacteria( pneumococci, streptococci, haemophilus influenzae).In the cold season, with hypothermia, high humidity, ARI, influenza, tonsillitis, runny nose, which lead to the appearance of bronchitis. Such reasons are called physical.
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    Bronchitis is transmitted by airborne droplets during coughing, sneezing, contact and kissing. If the body is exposed to harmful substances, then the chemical factor becomes the cause. Often affects allergens on the respiratory tract, causing irritation and inflammation in the bronchi.

    How does the disease occur? Viruses or bacteria, chemical components damage bronchial cells, the mucosa becomes vulnerable, resulting in a favorable environment for the reproduction of pneumococci and rods.

    Bacteria are connected to viruses, and the inflammatory process is aggravated by insufficient circulation and microthrombosis. If after 2-3 weeks of treatment, the mucosa is not restored, the disease becomes chronic.

    If the cough lasts more than 2-3 months and is repeated several times a year, it indicates a chronic form of the disease. Chronic bronchitis is a complication of acute bronchitis. If there is an obstruction of the respiratory tract of the bronchi as a result of edema, then such bronchitis is called obstructive.

    Risk factors for acute bronchitis:

    • smoking;
    • work in hazardous conditions( chemical production, mines);
    • supercooling;
    • decreased immunity;
    • of the upper respiratory tract;
    • sensitivity to allergens( dust, animal hair, plants).
    Acute bronchitis is more common in children and people with reduced local and general immunity. As soon as the first colds come, epidemics of ARI, influenza, ENT - diseases and acute bronchitis begin.


    Symptoms of acute bronchitis in adults


    In adults, acute bronchitis can occur as an independent disease, but more often it is accompanied by a cold and flu. Most often, the first symptoms of acute bronchitis begin with the appearance of dry cough, chills, malaise, headache, sometimes the body temperature rises to 38 degrees.

    Patient is suffering from insomnia, because at night cough is worse. On day 2-3, pus and sputum leave. If the treatment method with antibacterial and antiviral drugs is correctly chosen, the patient's condition on the 3-4 day is significantly improved.

    Acute bronchitis often causes palpitations, fatigue, dyspnea. The sooner the treatment begins, the more effective the recovery will be without complications.

    Treatment of acute bronchitis


    In adults, the choice of method of treatment depends on the cause of the disease.

    If bronchitis is bacterial in nature, then the first treatment for acute bronchitis are antibiotics.

    Although initially bronchitis is provoked by exposure to viruses, not only antimicrobial, but also anti-inflammatory therapy is used. If the cough is dry and prolonged, expectorants are prescribed. Mucolytics help clear the mucous membrane of the bronchi and restore its function.

    If acute bronchitis is caused by exposure to allergens, prescribe antihistamines in addition. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also used, for example, Ibuprom.

    In the treatment of acute bronchitis, physical procedures are particularly important - heating, UHF, quartz, cans, mustard, inhalation. In a hospital, paraffin applications, inhalations of essential oils, herbal decoctions( eucalyptus, mint), and massages are performed.

    For the treatment of bronchitis at home, you can make compresses on the basis of cabbage leaf and honey, boiled potatoes with the addition of alcohol, turpentine, grinding camphor alcohol.

    When warming the bronchi, blood circulation improves and sputum and pus come away. In general, cough is a protective reaction of the body and helps improve the condition of the bronchi and lungs. Therefore, one should not be afraid of coughing after the procedures, this is a natural process of self-cleaning of the respiratory system.

    It is recommended to adhere to bed rest during illness, and also to drink plenty of drink. Good tea helps with colds and bronchitis tea with lemon, milk with honey, warm mineral water, warmed cocoa butter. You can combine inhalation over onion mixture with reception of onion juice with honey.

    Inhalation is also effective over garlic mush, rich in phytoncids. In addition, get rid of acute bronchitis can be with inhalations with the drug Ingalipt. You can buy a special inhaler, add oil to it, and you can breathe above a saucepan with heated water.

    It is recommended to use herbs such as marshmallow, licorice root, linden, wild rosemary, elderberry, mother-stepmother as herbal preparations for fighting acute bronchitis. Badger fat enriches the body with vitamins and prevents complications after bronchitis.

    Complications


    Acute bronchitis is a fairly common disease that is successfully treated with the right therapy. However, not always adults turn to the doctor in time, the disease takes a long form, and complications can arise.

    Appears shortness of breath, weakness, blood pressure rises, tachycardia appears. The threat of pneumonia, a chronic form always appears with bronchitis.

    Complications:

    • pneumonia;
    • bronchial asthma;
    • obstructive bronchitis;
    • endocarditis, myocarditis;
    • glomerulonephritis;
    • vasculitis.
    Infection of the respiratory tract is transmitted by blood, and inflammation occurs in the kidneys, heart muscle, blood vessels. Bronchitis is transformed into focal or widespread pneumonia. With sensitivity to allergens, bronchial asthma may occur.

    Prevention


    It is important not only to start treatment of acute bronchitis in time, but also to prevent the disease. Local and general immunity is the main barrier of colds.

    To strengthen the protective functions of the body requires a rational diet with enough protein and vitamins, exercise to increase blood circulation, vaccination and timely treatment of foci of the upper respiratory tract.

    If the body has weak local immunity, which is manifested by frequent colds, it is necessary to use immunomodulators. To increase the overall immunity appoint Echinacea, Eleutherococcus. Protective functions of the respiratory system improve with the use of drugs containing bacterial lyophilizate. Such medications include broncho - vaccine, bronchomunal.

    An effective method of preventing bronchitis is hardening, daily walks in the fresh air, the use of a sufficient amount of liquid. If the body is weakened, it is better to keep it from hypothermia, the use of cold drinks and ice cream in the summer.

    You can use oxygen foam, conduct sessions in salt mines, and have a rest on the seaside in summer. This will help strengthen the body and prevent diseases of colds and bronchitis.


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